Canadian Social Research Links

°Canada Assistance Plan°
°Canada Health and Social Transfer°
°Canada Health Transfer°
°Canada Social Transfer°

Sites de recherche sociale au Canada

°Régime d'Assistance publique du Canada°
°Transfert canadien sur les programmes de santé et les programmes sociaux°
°Transfert canadien en matière de santé°
°Transfert canadien en matière de programmes sociaux°


Updated October 18, 2014
Page révisée le 18 octobre 2014

[ Go to Canadian Social Research Links Home Page ]

-----------------------------


From
Finance Canada:

Canada Social Transfer (CST)
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fedprov/cst-eng.asp
The CST is a federal block transfer to provinces and territories in support of post-secondary education, social assistance and social services, and early childhood development and early learning and childcare.

Source:
Federal Transfers to Provinces and Territories
http://www.fin.gc.ca/access/fedprov-eng.asp
There are four main transfer programs: the Canada Health Transfer (CHT), the Canada Social Transfer (CST), Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing (TFF). Follow this link for detailed info for all provinces and territories.

Federal Support to Provinces and Territories
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fedprov/mtp-eng.asp
In 2013–14, provinces and territories will receive $62.3 billion through major transfers (Canada Health Transfer, Canada Social Transfer, Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing) – an increase of $2.2 billion from the previous year.



* History of the Health and Social Transfers
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fedprov/his-eng.asp
Recommended reading!
Excellent albeit brief history of how the federal government calculates its contributions to provincial and territorial health and welfare, social services and post-secondary education (and a few one-off items). Covers the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP), the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST) and, finally, the Canada Health Transfer (CHT) and Canada Social Transfer

* Federal Support for Children
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fedprov/fsc-eng.asp
- incl. a brief description of, and expenditure information for, the Universal Child Care Plan (2006 and 2007), the Early Learning and Child Care Initiative (2005), the Early Learning and Child Care Framework Agreement (2003), and the Early Childhood Development Agreement (2000)
NOTE: This list formerly included Support for First Nations and Aboriginal Children, but this program was cut by the Harper Government.

 

 
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Comparing welfare in Canada and the U.S.? WHOA!

American and Canadian welfare systems should NOT be compared without situating each within its social policy context.
The American definition of welfare under TANF applies only to families with children, but in Canada, the definition applies to single people AND families, people with disabilities and employable people.

For a more detailed analysis of why you SHOULDN'T compare Canadian and American welfare systems, go to the Welfare in Canada vs the U.S. page: http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/canada_us_welfare.htm

NOTE : Links on this page are organized in reverse chronological order, for the most part

NEW

Case Study: The Harper government and the Canada Social Transfer, by Jennifer Mussell
[ https://www.policyalternatives.ca/Harper_Record_2008-2015/15-HarperRecord-Mussell.pdf ]
October 18, 2015

Source:
Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA)

https://www.policyalternatives.ca

Harper Government Providing Unprecedented Support to
Provinces and Territories for Health Care, Education Canadians Rely On
http://www.fin.gc.ca/n14/14-177-eng.asp
December 15, 2014
Finance Minister Joe Oliver has presented his provincial and territorial counterparts with details on 2015–16 transfer amounts. Every province and territory will benefit from higher transfers next year. Major federal transfers to provinces and territories will total $67.9 billion in 2015–16, an increase of more than $3 billion from the current year, and almost 63% since 2005–06.

There are four main annual federal transfer programs: the Canada Health Transfer (CHT), the Canada Social Transfer (CST), Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing (TFF). For more info on each of these, click the link above.

---

* Transfer Payments to Provinces and Territories for 2014-15 and 2015–16 ($ millions), by prov.
http://www.fin.gc.ca/n14/14-177-eng.asp#notes

* Federal Support to Provinces and Territories
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fedprov/mtp-eng.asp
- includes national figures as well as breakdowns for each province/territory for FY 2005-2006 to FY 2015-2016 --- 11 years of stats!

[Canada] Bill tabled to ban refugees from social assistance
http://www.thestar.com/news/immigration/2014/09/14/bill_tabled_to_ban_refugees_from_social_assistance.html
September 14, 2014
A Conservative MP's private member bill is quietly making its way through the legislature and, if passes, could exclude refugees from accessing help.
(...)
Bill C-585 [ http://goo.gl/sjTW9f ], which is before Parliament for second reading later this month, would allow provinces to individually impose residency requirements for eligibility for social assistance benefits and restrict access to those benefits by refugees.
(...)
Currently, the Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act, which lays out the terms of the Canada Social Transfer, stipulates that a province may not impose a minimum period of residency to restrict eligibility for social assistance — or it will risk losing some or all of its social transfer payments. The condition is meant to ensure that a national standard is in place to support those in need of help. Embedding such a major change in a private member’s bill has irked antipoverty and refugee advocates because such bills, as opposed to government bills, are less transparent and undergo less scrutiny; they’re usually put forward to address issues of regional significance.

Source:
Toronto Star

http://www.thestar.com/

Ontario struggling with welfare usage rates compared to most other provinces
http://www.newswire.ca/en/story/1305833/ontario-struggling-with-welfare-usage-rates-compared-to-most-other-provinces
February 13, 2014
A report released today by The School of Public Policy of the University of Calgary offers a national scan of social assistance usage rates to identify trends amongst the Canadian provinces. Based on their analysis, Ron Kneebone and Katherine White conclude that Ontario has the biggest problem with welfare usage (over 7 per cent in 2012) - Alberta maintains the lowest usage rate (roughly 3 per cent in 2012).

Source:
CNW
(formerly Canada Newswire)
http://www.newswire.ca/

--------------------------------------------

The report:

The Rise and Fall of Social-Assistance Use in Canada, 1969–2012
By Ronald Kneebone and Katherine White
February 2014
HTML version : http://policyschool.ucalgary.ca/?q=content/rise-and-fall-social-assistance-use-canada-1969-2012
PDF version (668K, 20 pages) :
http://policyschool.ucalgary.ca/sites/default/files/research/kneebone-white-social-assistance.pdf

An explanation that deserves attention is the replacement, in 1996, of shared federal-provincial financing of social assistance under the Canada Assistance Plan with its replacement, the Canada Health and Social Transfer, putting the sole responsibility* for financing on provinces. No longer able to spend “50-cent dollars” as under CAP, the provinces introduced significant changes in program design, rules and regulations.

Source:
School of Public Policy

[ http://policyschool.ucalgary.ca/ ]
University of Calgary
[ http://ucalgary.ca/ ]

* NOTE (by Gilles):
It's misleading to state that the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST) put the sole responsibility for financing provincial social assistance programs on the provinces (and territories), who were no longer able to spend '50-cent dollars' because the federal funding formula was changed in 1996 from a federal contribution equal to 50% of approved provincial-territorial welfare costs to a block fund that included social assistance and social services AND health insurance AND post-secondary education.

As noted in the National Council of Welfare's 1997 report Another Look at Welfare Reform (PDF - 6.75MB, 134 pages):
[ http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/1997_another_look_at_welfare_reform.pdf ]
... (page 4) "The new funding arrangements started with the 1996-97 fiscal year on April 1996 and ushered in sizable [sic] cuts in combined federal support for medicare, post-secondary education, welfare and social services. In the 1994-95 fiscal year, the federal government paid $29.4 billion to the provinces and territories for the four programs, partly in cash and partly in taxing powers that Ottawa had originally given up in 1977. By 1997-98, total federal support would fall by 14 percent to $25.2 billion
."

The federal contribution to provincial social assistance decreased between 1994 and 1998, but it wasn't eliminated. Ottawa allowed provinces to apportion the (decreased) federal dollars among the aforementioned programs as they saw fit, thus giving them more flexibility in the administration and financing of their programs. BTW- this is NOT an endorsement of the demise of the Canada Assistance Plan in favour of the CHST. I agree with most progressive program analysts, who saw the 1996 federal funding switch as regressive, with the National Council of Welfare going so far as to call it "the worst policy initiative undertaken by the federal government in more than a generation."

---

NOTE 2:
The nit-picker in me bubbles to the surface once in awhile, and today's one of those days --- "social assistance" (without the hyphen) is the correct spelling of the name of this program.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Rebuttal by
John Stapleton:

The rise and fall of welfare analysis in Canada
http://openpolicyontario.com/the-rise-and-fall-of-welfare-analysis-in-canada/
February 14, 2014
As a lifelong student of social assistance caseloads in Canada, I looked forward to The Rise and Fall of Social Assistance Use in Canada, 1969-2012 by Ron Kneebone and Katherine White. My interest became even more avid when I read that the authors had cited some my data to come to their conclusions.
The report is reasonably fair in its approach even if it does not mention or analyse the most important reasons why welfare caseloads have risen and fallen in Canada.

But that was before I read the news release supporting the report which comes to remarkably different conclusions than the report itself. Its chiding tone and speculative welfare baiting made me wonder if the real news release supporting the report was somehow mislaid or ‘separated at birth’.

Source:
Open Policy Ontario
- John Stapleton's blog
http://openpolicyontario.com/

************************

Gilles' two cents worth:

Excerpt from the report, p.3:
... the government of Ontario has, since 2007, posted on its website monthly data on cases and beneficiaries under its Ontario Works program, but the government is much less forthcoming about the number of beneficiaries of the Ontario Disability Support Program (ODSP). For information on ODSP beneficiaries, we relied on a privately maintained website created by former Ontario government bureaucrat John Stapleton.
---
The link to the ODSP stats appears on the same page as the link to OW stats, here:
http://www.mcss.gov.on.ca/en/mcss/programs/social/reports/index.aspx
As far as I can remember - certainly as far back as 2007, the statistics for BOTH Ontario social assistance programs have been available online.
"Much less forthcoming?"
I think not.

The Canada Social Transfer and
the Social Determinants of Health:
Final Report
(PDF - 508K, 45 pages)
http://goo.gl/zHr5V
PDF file dated March 2013
By
Ashley Lacombe Duncan and Jenna van Draanen
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Version française:
Le Transfert canadien en matière de services
sociaux et les déterminants sociaux de la santé:
Rapport final
(fichier PDF - 528K, 49 pages)
http://goo.gl/1o09i
Date du fichier PDF : mars 2013
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Canada Social Transfer (CST) is the primary source of federal funding in Canada that supports provincial and territorial social programs, specifically, post secondary education, social assistance and social services, and programs for children. (...) Canadian advocates of human rights and equitable public policy are increasingly concerned with accountability and have called for the government to introduce conditions and standards associated with the CST to improve accountability and to ensure that Canadians, regardless of location, have equal access to adequate social programming. (...) This paper investigates the adequacy of government provision and accountability in delivering social services through an in-depth exploration of income security funding at the national, provincial, and local level in Canada.
[Excerpts from the Executive Summary]

Executive Summary only (PDF - 100K, 4 pages)
http://goo.gl/uPiUW
(...)
The funding provided through the Canada Social Transfer is insufficient to meet most provincial spending on just income assistance, and falls even more drastically short of the actual funding that would be required to provide adequate social assistance, social services, childcare and early childhood education, and post-secondary education.

Source:
Defending Social Programs for a Stronger Canada
http://www.defendingsocialprograms.ca/
---
Version française:
Défense des Programmes Sociaux
http://defensedesprogrammessociaux.ca/
---

Defending Social Programs is a website of the
Canadian Association of Social Workers
http://www.casw-acts.ca/
Association canadienne des travailleuses et
travailleurs sociaux (ACTS)

Send a letter to your
Minister of Social Services:
http://defendingsocialprograms.ca/take-action
- includes suggested text that you can edit and "sign"
NOTE : In the absence of an "About this site" page, I'd suggest that you click the link immediately above and read the introductory text and the prepared message to find out more about this campaign.
---
Version française:
http://defensedesprogrammessociaux.ca/node/5

Federal Support for Health Care Set to Grow from Record Levels in 2013-14
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/nr-cp/_2013/2013-40-eng.php
April 1st, 2013
Ottawa -The Honourable Leona Aglukkaq, Minister of Health, today reaffirmed that the Canada Health Transfer (CHT) will reach a record high level of $30.3 billion in 2013-14, providing provinces and territories with long-term, predictable and sustainable funding to support the effective front-line delivery of health care services to Canadians and their families.
(...)
The CHT will grow at 6 per cent per year, from $28.6 billion in 2012-13 to a projected $37.7 billion in 2017-18, exceeding the current growth rate of provincial health care spending. Starting in 2017-18, the CHT will grow in line with a three-year moving average of nominal GDP growth, with funding guaranteed to increase by at least 3 per cent per year.
(...)
In addition to the CHT, the federal government provides transfers to the provinces and territories in support of education, child care and social services through the Canada Social Transfer (CST). The Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing Programs also ensure that provinces and territories can provide Canadians access to reasonably comparable programs and services at comparable levels of taxation.

Source:
Health Canada
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/index-eng.php


FACTOID : Did you know that government transfer payments to individuals in 2009 totalled $176.6 billion, not including Medicare and public education?

For a breakdown of that amount and corresponding amounts for 2005 to 2008, see:
Government transfer payments to persons
(from Statistics Canada):

[ http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/govt05a-eng.htm ]

 

New from
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada:

Federal Support for Social Programs Set to Grow to New Record Levels in 2013-14
http://goo.gl/CCl8G
Undated (tsk-tsk), but likely April 1st, 2013
Gatineau, Quebec—The Honourable Diane Finley, Minister of Human Resources and Skills Development, today reaffirmed that the Canada Social Transfer (CST) will reach a record high level of $12.2 billion this fiscal year, providing provinces and territories with long-term, predictable and sustainable funding to support education, child care and social services for Canadian families.
(...)
The CST will grow at three per cent per year, from $11.9 billion in 2012–13 to $13.7 billion in 2017–2018 in support of post-secondary education, social assistance and social services, childcare, early childhood development and early learning.
(...)
Details on specific transfer amounts to provinces and territories are available on
the Finance Canada web site:
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fedprov/mtp-eng.asp

Source:
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/home.shtml

---

Related links from
Finance Canada:

Federal Support to Provinces and Territories
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fedprov/mtp-eng.asp
In 2013–14, provinces and territories will receive $62.3 billion through major transfers (Canada Health Transfer, Canada Social Transfer, Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing) – an increase of $2.2 billion from the previous year.

Federal Transfers to Provinces and Territories
http://www.fin.gc.ca/access/fedprov-eng.asp
There are four main transfer programs: the Canada Health Transfer (CHT), the Canada Social Transfer (CST), Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing (TFF). Follow this link for detailed info for all provinces and territories

* History of the Health and Social Transfers
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fedprov/his-eng.asp

* Federal Support for Children
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fedprov/fsc-eng.asp
- incl. a brief description of, and expenditure information for, the Universal Child Care Plan (2006 and 2007), the Early Learning and Child Care Initiative (2005), the Early Learning and Child Care Framework Agreement (2003), and the Early Childhood Development Agreement (2000)
NOTE: This list formerly included Support for First Nations and Aboriginal Children, but this program was cut by the Harper Government.

The Canada Social Transfer and the Deconstruction of
Pan-Canadian Social Policy

By Donna E. Wood, University of Victoria
March 2013

Complete report (PDF - 732K, 37 pages)
(See table of contents below)
http://www.vibrantcalgary.com/uploads/pdfs/Canada_social_transfer_Wood_full.pdf

Brief version (PDF - 84K, 3 pages)
http://www.vibrantcalgary.com/uploads/pdfs/Canada_social_transfer_Wood_brief.pdf

Table of Contents:
Intro
Part 1 : Building Canada’s welfare state
--- Social assistance,welfare services and the Canada Assistance Plan
--- Postsecondary education and Established Programs Finance
Part 2 : Federal retrenchment and reinvestment
---Re-investments in health care
--- Re-investmentsin welfare services and postsecondary education
--- The split into the Canada Health Transfer and the Canada Social Transfer
Part 3 : The fall out
--- Social assistance
--- Social services and children’s programming
--- Postsecondary education
Part 4 : Who speaks for the Canada Social Transfer?
--- Social development interests
--- Postsecondary education interests
--- Other interests
--- Interests of federal, provincial and territorial governments
Part 5 : So what does this all mean?
--- Does a dedicated federal social transfer still matter?
--- Should the Canada Social Transfer be formally split?
--- Could national standards or conditions be established?
Part 6 : Contemporary challenges in federal-provincial relations
Conclusion
References

Source:
Vibrant Communities Calgary
http://www.vibrantcalgary.com/
Vibrant Communities Calgary is a non-profit organization that works collaboratively, with various stakeholders and partners, seeking to engage Calgarians and to advocate for long-term strategies that address the root causes of poverty in Calgary.

Related link:

Action to End Poverty in Alberta
http://www.actiontoendpovertyinalberta.org/
Action to End Poverty in Alberta is a non-profit initiative that works collaboratively with all levels of government, the community and with people experiencing poverty, to help develop and implement a comprehensive strategy and action plan to end poverty in Alberta.

Back to Basics: The Future of the Fiscal Arrangements (PDF - 1.6MB, 32 pages)
http://www.mowatcentre.ca/pdfs/mowatResearch/75.pdf
December 2012
By Matthew Mendelsohn
In the fifth paper in the Fiscal Transfers Series, Matthew Mendelsohn argues that Canada’s system of fiscal arrangements is misaligned with current economic realities. In particular, the system transfers funds from Ontario for redistribution at a time when Ontario’s fiscal capacity is below the national average. This is not sustainable for Ontario and violates the most basic understandings of equity built into the system. The paper documents how this situation arose and makes recommendations to fix it.

Mowat Centre Fiscal Transfers series
Every year, the federal government transfers over $50 billion to the provinces and territories. These funds help provinces and territories deliver the services Canadians count on. The major agreements that underpin these transfers are set to be renewed by 2014. There is broad consensus that the transfer system could improve.
The Mowat Centre has released a series of research papers outlining options for reform of the fiscal transfer system—reforms that offer a more principled approach to federal redistribution and reflect a dynamic, evolving federation.

Source:
Mowat Centre for Policy Innovation
http://www.mowatcentre.ca/
The Mowat Centre for Policy Innovation is an independent, non-partisan public policy think tank. We were established in 2009 with seed money from the Ontario government. We undertake applied public policy research and engage in public dialogue on federal issues important to the prosperity and quality of life of Ontario and Canada.

From StatCan's
"The Daily" for December 19, 2012:

Fiscal Arrangements Certificates: Federal Equalization Program, 2013/2014
http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/121219/dq121219g-eng.htm
Fiscal Certificates prepared for the administration of the Federal-provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act and Regulations for 2013/2014 are now available. The Fiscal Certificates cover the four fiscal years of data from 2009/2010 to 2012/2013.

The Fiscal Certificates are available free of charge in electronic format upon request.
---
[ Comment by Gilles : If these certificates are free and already in electronic format, why hasn't StatCan already posted them online instead of requiring interested parties to contact StatCan and self-identify to obtain a copy?? Surely StatCan knows that many people refuse on principle to divulge their personal information. Oh, wait --- I think StatCan figured that one out. Transparency and accountability, eh? That's B.S. ]
---

If you still wish to acquire the certificates, obtain more information or enquire about the concepts, methods or data quality of this release, contact StatCan (toll-free 1-800-263-1136; infostats@statcan.gc.ca) or Media Relations (613-951-4636; mediahotline@statcan.gc.ca).

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

New from Finance Canada (December 17)
--- Transfer Payments to Provinces and Territories for 2013–14
--- Backgrounder on Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing Renewal

With transfers growing from record highs, Finance Ministers
positioned to focus on jobs, growth and long-term prosperity
http://www.fin.gc.ca/n12/12-166-eng.asp
December 17, 2012
The Honourable Jim Flaherty, Minister of Finance, today presented Provincial and Territorial Finance Ministers with details on transfer amounts for 2013-14, as well as on technical improvements to the Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing (TFF) programs in the context of the renewal of these programs’ enabling legislation, which expires on March 31, 2014.

Related Documents:

* Transfer Payments to Provinces and Territories for 2013–14
http://www.fin.gc.ca/n12/data/12-166_1-eng.asp

* Backgrounder on Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing Renewal
http://www.fin.gc.ca/n12/data/12-166_2-eng.asp

Source:
Finance Canada

http://www.fin.gc.ca/fin-eng.asp

Also from
Finance Canada:

More links to federal transfers to provinces/territories:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/cap.htm#post
Click to access a number of special reports on transfers, including the following:

* Federal Transfers to Provinces and Territories
http://www.fin.gc.ca/access/fedprov-eng.asp
There are four main transfer programs: the Canada Health Transfer (CHT), the Canada Social Transfer (CST), Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing (TFF). Follow this link for detailed info for all provinces and territories

* History of the Health and Social Transfers
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fedprov/his-eng.asp

* Federal Support for Children
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fedprov/fsc-eng.asp
- incl. a brief description of, and payment information for, the Universal Child Care Plan (2006 and 2007), the Early Learning and Child Care Initiative (2005), the Early Learning and Child Care Framework Agreement (2003), and the Early Childhood Development Agreement (2000)
NOTE: This list formerly included Support for First Nations and Aboriginal Children, but this program was cut by the Harper Government.

----------------------------------

LEST WE FORGET:

Cuts Coming to the Canada Health Transfer
and the Canada Social Transfer?

[ Email alert from Rob Rainer of Canada Without Poverty ]
February 1, 2011
A rapidly emerging issue of immense public interest is the future of the Canada Health and Canada Social transfers. Critical decisions are coming about these transfers that could greatly shape the health and social security of Canadians in the coming years – and thus the very fabric of Canada. Through these transfers of many billions of dollars, the federal government helps support provinces and territories in the delivery of health care and social security services.

The legislation authorizing these transfers expires March 31, 2014.

In a remarkable open letter on January 25 to federal Finance Minister, Jim Flaherty, former senior Department of Finance officials Scott Clark and Peter Devries lay out the stark implications of this issue. This lengthy open letter offers a detailed analysis of this issue, and it closes with these words and questions (bold lettering added here for emphasis):

The decision you, or any government, will take with respect to the CHT and CST will set the course of the federal government and federal/provincial relations for many years to follow. Is it not possible to engage Canadians in this debate before a final decision is taken? In the past you have supported the analysis and recommendations of the IMF [International Monetary Fund], and quite rightly so. We would strongly recommend that you support the IMF conclusion in its recent report on " the importance of increasing transparency and communication about these challenges (demographic) and their long-run implications, (and) to increase public awareness and contribute to a debate about possible solutions.

Read the
complete open letter:

Pre-Budget 2011 Submission: Confronting the Structural Deficit
http://www.3dpolicy.ca/content/minister-finance-honourable-j-flaherty-pre-budget-2011-submission-confronting-structural-def
To: Minister of Finance The Honourable J. Flaherty
From: Scott Clark and Peter Devries
2011-01-25

------------------

Rob Rainer is with
CANADA WITHOUT POVERTY /
CANADA SANS PAUVRETÉ
http://www.cwp-csp.ca/

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

From StatCan's
"The Daily" for December 19, 2012:

Fiscal Arrangements Certificates: Federal Equalization Program, 2013/2014
http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/121219/dq121219g-eng.htm
Fiscal Certificates prepared for the administration of the Federal-provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act and Regulations for 2013/2014 are now available. The Fiscal Certificates cover the four fiscal years of data from 2009/2010 to 2012/2013.

The Fiscal Certificates are available free of charge in electronic format upon request.
---
[ Comment by Gilles : If these certificates are free and already in electronic format, why hasn't StatCan already posted them online instead of requiring interested parties to contact StatCan and self-identify to obtain a copy?? Surely StatCan knows that many people refuse on principle to divulge their personal information. Oh, wait --- I think StatCan figured that one out. Transparency and accountability, eh? That's B.S. ]
---

If you still wish to acquire the certificates, obtain more information or enquire about the concepts, methods or data quality of this release, contact StatCan (toll-free 1-800-263-1136; infostats@statcan.gc.ca) or Media Relations (613-951-4636; mediahotline@statcan.gc.ca).

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page ]

Canadian transfer payments
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_transfer_payments

Canada Social Transfer Project : Accountability Matters
Canadian Association of Social Workers
March 2012

HIGHLY RECOMMENDED READING!

First, some context:

The Canada Social Transfer (CST) is the primary source of federal funding in Canada that supports provincial and territorial social programs, specifically, post secondary education, social assistance, social services, and programs for children. In 2007, legislated funding for the CST was extended to 2013-2014, putting it on the same long-term predictable legislative track as the Canada Health Transfer (CHT). As both 2014 and the review of the CHT and CST are fast approaching, conversations have begun at the federal level about the Canada Health Transfer. The Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW), a national organization that has adopted a pro-active approach to addressing issues pertinent to social policy and social work practice in Canada, calls for a similar approach of review of the Canada Social Transfer (CST) to be undertaken at the federal level.
(...)
While the Canada Health Transfer is attached to a set of conditions through the Canada Health Act, the Canada Social Transfer is a largely unconditional transfer, a fact that has come into question over time by scholars, policy-makers and activists.
[Source: Excerpt from report background, p.6]

Canadian Association of Social Workers Report on Social Transfer
http://casw-acts.ca/en/canadian-association-social-workers-report-social-transfer
News Release
March 19, 2012
The Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW) today issued a comprehensive report aimed at bringing attention to the lack of accountability inherent in the receipt and delivery of the Canadian Social Transfer. Entitled Canada Social Transfer Project - Accountability Matters, the Report outlines recommendations on renewing accountability for the billions transferred annually from the federal to provincial governments in support of social services, childcare and post-secondary education.

Complete report:

Canada Social Transfer Project:
Accountability Matters
(PDF - 440K, 79 pages)
http://goo.gl/1Y02M

---
Version française:
Étude sur le Transfert canadien en matière de programmes sociaux :
La reddition de compte, c'est important
(PDF - 536K, 82 pages)
http://goo.gl/2ZuWE
---

Selected contents:

* Background to the Project
* Importance of Social Programs in Canada
* Financing of Social Services in Canada : Cost-Sharing & Block Funding
* Federal and Provincial/Territorial Relations
* Jurisdictional Landscape of Social Service Delivery:Past and Present
* Social Union Framework Agreement
* Changing Funding Models and Commitments
* Changes in Roles and Relationships
* Issues with the Current Canada Social Transfer : Accountability Issues - Role and Relationship Issues - Financing Issues
* Transfers and Social Citizenship Rights
* Potential Future Roles for Federal Government
* Key Informant Interview Findings (Current Approach to the CST - Federal and Provincial Roles - Attaching Conditionality to the CST - more...
* Recommended Federal, Provincial, Territorial Leadership and Collaboration
* Action Plan for Moving Forward on Recommendations

Source:
Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW)

http://casw-acts.ca/

Related link:

An end to the perpetual welfare trap?
Guaranteed incomes debated

http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/breakingnews/an-end-to-the-perpetual-welfare-trap-167004295.html
By: Mary Agnes Welch
August 22, 2012

Bringing back a discarded government program could save taxpayers millions in health-care and bureaucracy costs and dramatically shrink poverty, just as it did in Dauphin almost 40 years ago.
The problem is, even the province's left-leaning NDP government likely doesn't have the political will to use it.
That was the feeling Tuesday at a standing-room-only lecture about a hot public-policy idea -- a guaranteed annual income that would replace welfare.
It's an idea with roots in Manitoba. Nearly 40 years ago, Dauphin was the site of an experiment on the effects of a guaranteed income. Every low-income person in town, including the working poor and people not eligible for welfare, got a top-up to ensure a basic level of income.
At a discussion hosted by Winnipeg Harvest, University of Manitoba researcher Evelyn Forget said the results were remarkable: People had much better health, far more children graduated from high school and people didn't stop working just because they were guaranteed an income.
(...)
Guaranteed annual income had a rebirth as an interesting, if seemingly radical, policy alternative to the confusing, expensive hodge-podge of welfare systems in Canada. We've already adopted some targeted elements of a GAI, such as the national child benefit and the guaranteed income supplement for seniors. Yukon toyed with a version of the GAI in 2007, and there was an international conference focused on the idea in Toronto in May of this year.
- includes an overview of the Mincome Manitoba experiment of the mid-1970s, specifically in Dauphin Manitoba.

Source:
Winnipeg Free Press

http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/

---

- Go to the Canada Assistance Plan / Canada Health and Social Transfer / Canada Social Transfer Resources page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/cap.htm

- Go to the Guaranteed Annual Income Links page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/gai.htm

From the Senate of Canada:

Opening the Door : Reducing Barriers to
Post-Secondary Education in Canada
(PDF - 1.2MB, 130 pages)
http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/SEN/Committee/411/soci/rep/rep06dec11-e.pdf
December 2011
(...)
In Canada, education falls under provincial jurisdiction. Section 93 of the Constitution Act, 1867, states that “[i]n and for each Province the Legislature may exclusively make Laws in relation to Education”. As a result, each province and territory is responsible for organizing, delivering and evaluating education within its borders, from primary to post-secondary levels. However, pursuant to section 91 of the Constitution, the federal government is responsible for the education of First Nations people on reserve, members of the armed forces and their families, and inmates of federal correctional institutions, among others.

The federal government’s role for primary and secondary education is limited to these specific groups (e.g., education of First Nations on reserve), but is more flexible with regard to PSE. For example, the federal government is involved in PSE by indirectly funding the provincial PSE systems through transfer payments, financing research through granting councils, and supporting students through the Canada Student Loans Program. Federal involvement in PSE is based on the government’s significant responsibility for national economic policy, human resource development and citizens’ mobility between provinces.

Partial table of
contents for the report:

Order of Reference
Members
List of Recommendations
Introduction
Barriers to Post-Secondary Education in Canada
--- Non-financial barriers
--- Financial barriers
Specific under-represented groups
Gender differences
Aboriginal People and Post-secondary Education
Post-secondary Funding Mechanisms
---Student financial assistance
--- Tax measures
--- Savings incentives
--- Canada Summer Jobs
--- Financial support for apprentice training
Research at Post-secondary Institutions
The Role of the Federal Government
--- The Canada Social Transfer (CST)
National strategy on the accessibility of post-secondary education
Conclusion

Source:
Senate Standing Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology
http://goo.gl/22amn

Senate Committees:
http://goo.gl/g9Bv2

Parliament of Canada
http://www.parl.gc.ca/Default.aspx?Language=E

There's gonna be some changes around here...

The 2007 federal Budget restructured the Canada Social Transfer to provide equal per capita cash support to provinces and territories, effective 2007-08; similar changes to be made to the Canada Health Transfer effective 2014-15, when its current legislation is renewed.
Source:
History of the Health and Social Transfers
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fedprov/his-eng.asp

-------------------------

The Canada Social Transfer: Retrospect and Prospect (Word 2007 file - 242K, 15 pages)
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net//CST_2011.docx
By James Gauthier
14 July 2011
The structure of major federal transfers for provincial/territorial social programs has undergone significant changes over the years, primarily in response to the desire among provincial/territorial governments for greater flexibility and federal concerns over rising costs. This paper provides an overview of how federal support for social programs is provided to provinces and territories today through the CST, and how this fiscal arrangement has evolved over time, including its associated accountability mechanisms. The paper concludes with a presentation of some likely key issues for renewal of the CST, along with a description of the process of FPT negotiations for major federal transfers, as well as an example of a more targeted federal transfer to provinces and territories in support of housing and homelessness.

-----
NOTE : The above file hasn't been posted to the Parliamentary Research website as at February 6, 2012.
It was sent to me by a newsletter subscriber to share with other social researchers.
Gilles
-----

Source:
Library of Parliament Research Publications
http://www.parl.gc.ca/About/Library/VirtualLibrary/ResearchPublications-E.asp

Related links:

The Canada Social Transfer : In Brief
By James Gauthier and Shahrzad Mobasher Fard
Revised 23 July 2009
[ NOTE : This is an earlier, shorter version of the July 2011 CST paper. ]

HTML version
http://www2.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0857-e.htm

PDF version (56K, 3 pages)
http://www2.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/prb0857-e.pdf

The Canada Social Transfer (CST) is the primary federal contribution in support of provincial programs related to post-secondary education, social assistance and social services, and programs for children in Canada. This short paper offers an overview of the Canada Social Transfer (CST) that includes the amounts payable to provinces and territories in cash transfers from 2004–2005 to 2013–2014, along with information on related tax point transfers and associated equalization. It also includes information on the change in the CST Formula since 2007-2008 and the impact of that change.

Source:
Library of Parliament Research Publications
http://www.parl.gc.ca/About/Library/VirtualLibrary/ResearchPublications-E.asp
HINT: Click the source link above to access several hundred reports by this research group, all organized by category.

Related link:

Canada Social Transfer
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fedprov/cst-eng.asp
(...) The CST is calculated on an equal per capita cash basis to reflect the Government’s commitment to ensure that general-purpose transfers provide equal support for all Canadians. Prior to that, the CST was calculated on an equal per capita basis combining the value of both tax and cash transfers.

Source:
Federal Transfers to Provinces and Territories
http://www.fin.gc.ca/access/fedprov-eng.asp

Department of Finance Canada:
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fin-eng.asp

The Federal Role in Health and Health Care
By Marlisa TiedemannParliamentary Information and Research Service
Library of Parliament
22 September 2011

HTML version:
http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-91-e.htm

PDF version (172K, 11 pages)
http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-91-e.pdf

Contents

1 Health and the Constitution Act, 1867
2 The Criminal Law Power
3 The Federal Spending Power
4 Peace, Order and Good Government
5 Other Federal Responsibilities that Bear on Health
Selected Bibliography

Source:
Library of Parliament Research Publications
http://www.parl.gc.ca/About/Library/VirtualLibrary/ResearchPublications-E.asp

- Go to the Health Links (Canada/International) page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/health.htm

---

January 27, 2012
Social Security Statistics, Canada and Provinces, 1978-79 to 2002-2003
This link will take you further down on the page you're now reading to a collection of links to historical statistics on a wide range of social programs, including the Canada Assistance Plan .
Parts of the Human Resources and Skills Development website were updated late in 2011, which led to the loss of some important content, notably this report containing 25 years' worth of valuable social security stats.

---

The Canada Health Transfer:
Changes to Provincial Allocations

HTML version
http://parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-02-e.htm
PDF version (PDF - 170K, 12 pages)
http://parl.gc.ca/Content/LOP/ResearchPublications/2011-02-e.pdf
25 February 2011
By James Gauthier
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of recent and expected changes to the Canada Health Transfer (CHT), and to determine the impacts of these changes on by-province allocations over time. The paper begins by providing background information on the composition and calculation of the CHT, follows with an explanation of changes to the CHT introduced since Budget 2007 and Budget 2009, and ends with an analysis of the impacts of expected changes to the CHT in 2014–2015.

Contents:

1. Introduction
2. Background
3. Health Reform Fund
4. Budget 2007 Commitments Affecting the Canada Health Transfer
5. Budget 2009 Commitments Affecting the Canada Health Transfer
6. Expected Change to the Canada Health Transfer Formula in 2014

Source:
Parliamentary Information and Research Service:
http://www.parl.gc.ca/About/Library/VirtualLibrary/ResearchPublications-E.asp

[ Library of Parliament Research Publications:
http://www.parl.gc.ca/About/Library/VirtualLibrary/ResearchPublicationsCurrent-e.asp ]

Harper Government announces major new investment in health care
“Federal health care funding will increase from $30 billion in 2013-14 to $38 billion in 2018-19”
http://www.fin.gc.ca/n11/11-141-eng.asp
News Release
December 19, 2011
The Honourable Jim Flaherty, Minister of Finance, today announced a major new investment in health care. The new investment in health care will see funding grow to record levels from $30 billion per year in 2013-14 to $38 billion per year in 2018-19, for a total investment of $178 billion in health care over the five-year period. (...)
From 2006-07 to 2011-12, support provided through the Canada Health Transfer (CHT) to the provinces and territories in Canada has reached record highs, increasing by almost $7 billion, or nearly 34 per cent overall. Today’s announcement means federal support for health care will now continue to grow every year beyond the record levels the federal government has already invested.

Related Documents:

* Backgrounder on major transfer renewal
http://www.fin.gc.ca/n11/data/11-141_1-eng.asp

* Backgrounder on 2012-13 major transfer amounts
http://www.fin.gc.ca/n11/data/11-141_2-eng.asp
The Honourable Jim Flaherty, Minister of Finance, today announced a major new investment in health care. The new investment in health care will see funding grow to record levels from $30 billion per year in 2013-14 to $38 billion per year in 2018-19, for a total investment of $178 billion in health care over the five-year period.

* Federal/Provincial Transfer Payment Update:
Federal Support to Provinces and Territories
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fedprov/mtp-eng.asp

Source:
Finance Canada
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fin-eng.asp

---------------------------

Related links:

Provinces balk at cuts in health-care funding
Ottawa warns future spending to be linked to economic growth; B.C. supports plan
http://goo.gl/4Mws9
December 19, 2011


Source:
Victoria Times Colonist
http://www.timescolonist.com/

THE CANADA HEALTH AND SOCIAL TRANSFER:
OPERATION AND POSSIBLE REPERCUSSIONS
ON THE HEALTH CARE SECTOR

By
Odette Madore
Revised 3 June 2003
Contents:
ISSUE DEFINITION
BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS
A. Transfers Under Established Programs Financing and the Canada Assistance Plan : A Brief Background
1. Established Programs Financing
2. The Canada Assistance Plan
B. The Canada Health and Social Transfer: Its Nature and Operation
C. Consequences of the Canada Health and Social Transfer
1. Provincial Public Finances and Provincial Expenditures for Health Care
2. The Canada Health and Social Transfer and the Canada Health Act
PARLIAMENTARY ACTION
CHRONOLOGY
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Source:
Depository Services Program
[ Government of Canada Publications ]
[ Government of Canada Home Page ]

From
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada:

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2008
[Posted online July 2011]
[PDF version (608K, 141 pages) : http://www.wellington.ca/en/socialservices/resources/SocialAssistanceStatisticalReport2008.pdf
Produced by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Directors of Income Support
This report includes a description of, and statistics related to, the welfare system in each province and territory, information about federal-provincial-territorial jurisdictional and funding issues, a bit of historical info on the Canada Assistance Plan and the Canada Health and Social Transfer, etc.

"In recognition of the growing public demand for comprehensive information on provincial and territorial social assistance programs and caseloads, the Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2008 is the fifth annual joint publication by federal, provincial and territorial governments. The report provides a general overview of social assistance in Canada, as well as a description of income support-related/social assistance programs in each jurisdiction. This report does not include social assistance rates as this information is currently available to the public on most provincial and territorial government Web sites."
(Excerpt from Chapter 1 - Summary)

NOTE: Chapter Two of the report is a seven-page descriptive overview of social assistance in Canada in 2008, comprising a (very) brief history of federal social assistance since 1966 and general information about how welfare works in Canadian provinces and territories (including the treatment of federal child benefits under welfare programs, welfare eligibility conditions and administrative rules, etc.). Other chapters of the report provide, for each province and territory, information on eligibility (including asset and income exemption levels) and benefits (but no actual benefit levels), as well as an impressive number of statistical tables, graphs and charts providing numbers of cases and beneficiaries (time series statistics going back as far as the mid-1990s, depending on the jurisdiction), profile information (age/education/sex of household head, cases by reason for assistance) and even (for most jurisdictions) the percentage of households reporting income.

Source:
Social Policy
[ Human Resources and Skills Development Canada ]

"Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2008" is online, but not on the HRSDC website. The above links point to a copy of the report that was archived by the Internet Archive. Thanks for nothing, HRSDC.

The Internet Archive also contains the earlier versions of this statistical report:

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2004
http://web.archive.org/web/20110807030546/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/publications/reports/sp-626-09-05e/page00.shtml

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2005
http://web.archive.org/web/20110807030546/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/publications/reports/sd10-3-2004e/page00.shtml

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2006
http://web.archive.org/web/20110807030546/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/publications_resources/social_policy/fpt/page00.shtml

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2007
http://web.archive.org/web/20110807030546/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/publications_resources/social_policy/sasr_2007/page00.shtml

 

Tory welfare wait period could be costly
June 1, 2011
A Progressive Conservative election promise to enact a one-year waiting before new Ontario arrivals can collect welfare could cost the province millions in federal transfer payments. Included in the Ontario Tories' platform unveiled last week is a plan to make welfare applicants "show a promise to Ontario" by living in the province for a year before they are eligible. Ontarians will go to the polls in an Oct. 6 provincial election.
(...)
Federal law stipulates that Ottawa can cut transfer payments to a province that imposes any kind of time limit before people are eligible for welfare. Ontario receives $4.46 billion a year from the Canada Social Transfer, which provides support to provinces across a number of different areas, including:
- Post-secondary education.
- Social assistance and social services.
- Early childhood development.
- Early learning and childcare.
It's not clear exactly how much of that funding could be affected by a potential one-year residency welfare prerequisite.
Hudak said he is not worried his plan will cost the province money. "To me it's an important value as Ontarians that if you're going to go on the welfare rolls, you should at least live in our province for a year," he said.

[ Comments (51) ]

Source:
CBC News

Major federal transfer payments to
provinces and territories for 2010-11 and for 2011-12:

Ensuring a Strong Retirement System, Support for Provinces
and Territories While Moving Towards Budget Balance

December 20, 2010
If you click the link above AND scroll down to the bottom of that page, you'll find a table showing major federal transfer payments to provinces and territories for 2010-11 and for 2011-12. See the "Federal Transfers" link below for information on the provincial-territorial programs that these major federal transfers cover.
Source:
Canada News Centre

Also from Finance Canada:

Federal Transfers to Provinces and Territories
There are four main transfer programs: the Canada Health Transfer (CHT), the Canada Social Transfer (CST), Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing (TFF).

NEW


Recommended reading:

Federal [social spending] Caps and Cuts, 1972-1995
- excerpt from a report by the Parliamentary Library (includes a link to the original report)
"(...) the federal government has, since at least the mid-seventies, been engaged in what has been widely portrayed as a retreat from the social policy role established during the immediate post-war period."
- incl. major milestones

 


INTRODUCTION

From 1966-67 to 1995-96, the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) was the funding mechanism that s pelled out the specific details of the federal government's financial contributions to the cost of provincial and territorial ("P/T") social assistance and social services. In April 1996, the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST) replaced CAP as the vehicle for federal transfers for to P/T governments for social programs. The formula for federal contributions changed from federal-provincial cost-sharing (50-50) to a block fund that now included health insurance and post-secondary program costs. Eight years later (starting in April 2004), federal transfer payments to provinces and territories for health services were transferred to the new Canada Health Transfer, while those for post-secondary education and social assistance and services went under the new Canada Social Transfer.

This page of links started with a few CAP documents that I thought worth preserving and sharing, and it's since grown to include a number of pieces of historical information on welfare in Canada. The CAP/CHST/CHT/CST page focuses more on the federal government's role over time in Canadian welfare policy; you'll have to visit the Welfare Reforms in Canada page of this site for P/T perspectives on the evolution of welfare in Canada.


NOTES:
1. Most of this page is organized in chronological order, that is, the oldest material is at the top of the page. The exception to this is the post-CHST section, which is in reverse order, i.e., the most recent info is at the top of the section.
2. Go to the Canadian Social Research Links Medicare Debate in Canada Links page for all links to info concerning federal contributions to provincial-territorial health care costs and fiscal imbalance between the two levels of government.
3.
For information about the outcome of the Gosselin case and other court cases that had an impact on CAP (e.g., James Finlay), go to the Canadian Social Research Links Case Law / Court Decisions / Inquests page
4. Select a subject from the list below or scroll down to view the whole collection.


Pre-CAP
- including the federal role in Canada's welfare programs
CAP Legislation
CHST Legislation
CST Legislation

(incl. the social assistance residence rule)
The "cap on CAP"
(early 1990s - the beginning of the end for CAP)
From CAP to the CHST
History of CAP
Welfare Statistics
1994 Social Security Review
(incl. full-text discussion paper, plus supplementary papers on CAP, guaranteed annual income, income security for children and people with disabilities) 
Analyses/Critiques of CAP and the CHST
A State of the Art Review of Income Security Reform in Canada
Pulkingham and Ternowetsky
Online Report 

(Summer 1998) 

 CAP, Rights and Workfare

Workfare or Work Activity Project?

Another Look at Welfare Reform
(Fall 1997 - National Council of Welfare)
[welfare reforms pre- and post-CHST] 
 
Since the CHST...
(incl. Federal Transfers to Provinces and Territories from Finance Canada )
The Right to Welfare


1996 OECD international social assistance study:

- detailed comparison of how social assistance programs operated
in 24 OECD countries, including Canada and the United States (see Volume II)

Social Assistance in OECD Countries
Volume I : Synthesis Report
(PDF - 2.6MB, 207 pages)
A study carried out on behalf of the Department of Social Security and the OECD by the Social Policy Research Unit
1996

---

Social Assistance in OECD Countries
Volume II : Country Reports
(PDF - 4.8MB, 499 pages)

A study carried out on behalf of the Department of Social Security and the OECD by the Social Policy Research Unit
By Tony Eardley, Jonathan Bradshaw, John Ditch, Ian Gough and Peter Whiteford
1996

Participating countries:
* Australia * Greece * Norway * Austria * Iceland * Portugal * Belgium * Ireland * Spain * Canada * Italy * Sweden * Denmark * Japan * Switzerland * Finland * Luxembourg * Turkey * France * Netherlands * United States * Germany * New Zealand * United Kingdom

Source:
United Kingdom
Department for Work and Pensions (DWP)


WELFARE IN CANADA 101

If you're not sure how welfare works in Canada, I highly recommend the following resource:

Social Assistance in Canada: An Overview * (7 pages)
*This is the second chapter of:

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2008
July 2011
[ PDF version (608K, 141 pages) : http://www.wellington.ca/en/socialservices/resources/SocialAssistanceStatisticalReport2008.pdf ]
Produced by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Directors of Income Support
This report includes a description of, and statistics related to, the welfare system in each province and territory, information about federal-provincial-territorial jurisdictional and funding issues, a bit of historical info on the Canada Assistance Plan and the Canada Health and Social Transfer, etc.

Source:
[ Human Resources and Skills Development Canada ]


The Pre-CAP Days

The federal role in Canadian
welfare (social assistance) programs:

The Constitution Act, 1867 (Consolidated with amendments)

Under The Constitution Act:
" Exclusive Powers of Provincial Legislatures:
Subjects of exclusive Provincial Legislation
s.92. In each Province the Legislature may exclusively make Laws in relation to Matters coming within the Classes of Subjects next hereinafter enumerated; that is to say,
(...)
----- s.92(7). The Establishment, Maintenance, and Management of Hospitals, Asylums, Charities, and Eleemosynary Institutions in and for the Province, other than Marine Hospitals."
(...)
NOTE: This consolidation contains the text of the Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly the British North America Act, 1867), together with amendments made to it since its enactment, and the text of the Constitution Act, 1982, as amended since its enactment.
Source of
the above excerpt:
http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/Const/page-5.html#anchorbo-ga:s_91-gb:s_92
[ http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/Const/ ]

------------

The Spending Power

The concept of a federal "spending power" is a relatively recent constitutional development. It arises from federal government initiatives immediately following the Second World War, and is closely linked with efforts to centralize the taxing power.(1) By providing program funds for a variety of health, education and social development programs, either unilaterally or in co-operation with the provinces, the federal government substantially altered Canada’s approach to issues that were essentially within provincial jurisdiction.

The spending power thus became the main lever of federal influence in fields that are legislatively within provincial jurisdiction, such as health care, education, welfare, manpower training and regional development. By making financial contributions to specified provincial programs, the federal government could influence provincial policies and program standards.
Source:
Parliamentary Research [dead link]

---

Canada's constitution divides law making power between the Parliament of Canada and provincial legislatures. This is the essence of Canadian federalism. The division of legislative powers is done mainly by secs. 91-5 of the Constitution Act, 1867. The language of these sections is quite broad, using phrases like "Trade and Commerce," "Property and Civil Rights" and "Generally all Matters of a merely local or private Nature". In some cases the language granting law making power is antique - "Asylums" and Eleemosynary Institutions," for example. Still, in responding to a challenge that a particular law is beyond the constitutional power of either Parliament or a provincial legislature, a court must consult secs. 91-5 - even if they are antique and not precise, for they are the main sources by which law making power is given to Canadian legislatures.
Source:
http://www.uottawa.ca/constitutional-law/pith.html

---

The British North America Act indicated that welfare was primarily the responsibility of provincial and local governments except for the indigenous and immigrant populations for whom the federal government assumed primary responsibility.
Source:
http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-516-x/sectionc/4057749-eng.htm

---

The 1982 Constitution Act made it a duty of the federal government and all provincial and territorial governments to... provide essential services of reasonable quality to all Canadians.
Source:
http://www.equalityrights.org/ngoun98/ccpi.htm#part4

---

http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/Const/

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Canada's Unique Social History
This is a comprehensive online introduction to social welfare and social work that anyone interested in the history of social programs in Canada should bookmark. The site comprises hundreds of pages of text, audio-visual material and links to more information. Prepare to spend hours - I did.
This is a must-visit site with something for everyone with an interest in Canadian social programs.
This site is the creation of Steven Hick, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Social Work of Carleton University in Ottawa.
The project was funded by Heritage Canada.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Great Depression: A Canadian perspective
- An excellent site for information about the 1930s in Canada.
- Includes good multimedia (slide show, RealAudio version, etc.)

------------------------------------------------------------------

Poor Laws (England, 17th Century)
"The history of the English poor laws is often divided into the Old Poor Law and the New Poor Law — the watershed between them being the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834. Not everything changed in 1834, however. One important and complex piece of poor law legislation which originated in 1662, and which did not finally disappear until 1948, was the Settlement Act."
Source:
The Workhouse

------------------------------------------------------------------

BACK (to the list of topics at the top of this page)
 
The History of CAP

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE CANADA ASSISTANCE PLAN for the year ended March 31, 1968
- the full 16-page report presented to Parliament - includes information on the background, objectives, main features, application and administration of the Plan - a collector's item, scanned from the original. This report also offers some historical perspectives on welfare programs going back to the Old Age Pensions Act of 1927.

The Evolution of the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP)
1985
By John E. Osborne
This is a copy of the 21-page Appendix to the 1985 Nielsen Task Force report on the Canada Assistance Plan. It's an  insider's view of the first 20 years of CAP and its historical precedents. It was written by an official of the federal Department of Health and Welfare (the "home" of CAP) at the time, it includes a gold mine of historical information on Canadian social programs of last resort in the twentieth century.


"No sooner had CAP been launched than the Minister of Finance proposed, in September 1966, that it be terminated. In a statement to the Tax Structure Committee, he offered to terminate it as of March 31, 1970, and to replace it with a combination of tax abatement, equalization payments and adjustment grants unrelated to program costs." 
From The Evolution of the Canada Assistance Plan By John E. Osborne, in the Nielsen Task Force Report on CAP (1985)

The Canada Assistance Plan: A Twenty Year Assessment, l966-l986 (~23 printed pages with graphs and tables)
Allan Moscovitch
Carleton University
January 1988
This excellent critical analysis of CAP's first twenty years provides detailed information about programs that preceded CAP and about the inner workings of the administration of CAP.

BACK (to the list of topics at the top of this page)

 
CAP Legislation
CHST Legislation
CST Legislation

Canada Assistance Plan -- (Consolidation up to S.C. 1996, c. 11)
CHAPTER C-1 (Repealed March 31, 2000)
Thanks to Vincent Calderhead for graciously donating his copy of the statute to share with other visitors to this site.

NOTE: Like the Canada Pension Plan, the Canada Assistance Plan is not only the name of the program but also the official title of the statute.
It's incorrect to refer to the CAP statute as the CAP Act.
According to s.1 of the CAP statute,
"This Act may be cited as the Canada Assistance Plan."

Canada Assistance Plan Regulations -- R.C., c. 382
- Last amended 1986/07/09

---

CHAPTER 17 (Bill C-76), Statutes of 1995
An Act to implement certain provisions of the budget tabled in Parliament on February 27, 1995 [dead link]
- incl. provisions for the winding-down of the Canada Assistance Plan (section 30 foll.) and the startup of the Canada Health and Social Transfer (section 48)
Source:
Canadian Legal Information Institute

---

Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act, Chapter F-8
Regularly updated
See:
Part V : Canada Health and Social Transfer (sections 13 to 23)

Part V.1 : Canada Health Transfer, Canada Social Transfer and Health Reform Transfer (sections 24, 25)

Canada Health Transfer, Canada Social Transfer
and Wait Times Reduction Transfer Regulations

SOR/2004-62



Key provisions in the Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act
concerning
social assistance residence rules

Excerpts from the
Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act, R.S.C., 1985, c. F-8, as amended
(...)
Part V : Canada Health and Social Transfer (sections 13 to 23)

Part V.1 : Canada Health Transfer, Canada Social Transfer and Health Reform Transfer (sections 24, 25)

"PART V
CANADA HEALTH AND SOCIAL TRANSFER

s.13. (1) Subject to this Part, a Canada Health and Social Transfer established under paragraphs 14(a), (b) and (e) to (g) is to be provided to the provinces for the purposes of
(a) financing social programs in a manner that provides provincial flexibility;
(b) maintaining the national criteria and conditions in the Canada Health Act, including those respecting public administration, comprehensiveness, universality, portability and accessibility, and the provisions relating to extra-billing and user charges;
(c) maintaining the national standard, set out in section 19, that no period of minimum residency be required or allowed with respect to social assistance; and
(d) promoting any shared principles and objectives that are developed, pursuant to subsection (3), with respect to the operation of social programs, other than a program for the purpose referred to in paragraph (b).

s.18. In sections 19 to 23,
"Minister" means the Minister of Human Resources Development;
" social assistance " means aid in any form to or in respect of a person in need.

s.19. (1) In order that a province may qualify for a full cash contribution under subsection 15(1) for a fiscal year, the laws of the province must not

(a) require or allow a period of residence in the province or Canada to be set as a condition of eligibility for social assistance or for the receipt or continued receipt thereof; or
(b) make or allow the amount, form or manner of social assistance to be contingent upon a period of such residence.

Exception

(2) The criteria in subsection (1) are not contravened by a requirement of a health insurance plan of a province of a minimum period of residence in the province or waiting period that does not contravene paragraph 11(1)(a) of the Canada Health Act.

PART V.1
CANADA HEALTH TRANSFER, CANADA SOCIAL TRANSFER AND HEALTH REFORM TRANSFER (sections 24-25.8)
[NOTE: Part V.1 was added to this statute by section 8 of Chapter 15, Statutes of 2003]
(...)
Canada Social Transfer

24.3 (1) Subject to this Part, a Canada Social Transfer in the amounts referred to in subsection 24.4(1) is to be provided to the provinces for the purposes of
(a) financing social programs in a manner that provides provincial flexibility;
(b) maintaining the national standard, set out in subsection 25.1(1), that no period of minimum residency be required or allowed with respect to social assistance; and
(c) promoting any shared principles and objectives that are developed under subsection (2) with respect to the operation of social programs.

(2) The Minister of Human Resources Development shall invite representatives of all the provinces to consult and work together to develop, through mutual consent, a set of shared principles and objectives for social programs that could underlie the Canada Social Transfer.

Definition of "social programs"

(3) In this section, "social programs" includes programs in respect of post-secondary education, social assistance and social services, including early childhood development, and early learning and child care services.

(...)

24.9 The following definitions apply in sections 25 to 25.5.

"Minister" means the Minister of Human Resources Development.

"social assistance" means aid in any form to or in respect of a person in need.

25.1 (1) In order that a province may qualify for a full cash contribution (...) for a fiscal year, the laws of the province must not
(a) require or allow a period of residence in the province or Canada to be set as a condition of eligibility for social assistance or for the receipt or continued receipt of social assistance; or
(b) make or allow the amount, form or manner of social assistance to be contingent on a period of such residence.

Exception

(2) The criteria in subsection (1) are not contravened by a requirement of a health insurance plan of a province of a minimum period of residence in the province or waiting period that does not contravene paragraph 11(1)(a) of the Canada Health Act.

------------------------------------------

Canada Health Transfer, Canada Social Transfer
and Wait Times Reduction Transfer Regulations

SOR/2004-62
[NOTE: The issue of residency is not mentioned in these regulations. ]

BACK (to the list of topics at the top of this page)
 
 
Welfare Statistics

NOTE: for links to welfare statistics for a specific province or territory,
go to the Key Welfare Links page of this site and select a jurisdiction in the left-hand column.
---

As of January 2012, the latest national, public statistics on welfare dependency in Canada's provinces and territories are for the year ending March 2005.
That's unacceptable.

Number of People on Welfare, March 1995 to March 2005 (PDF file - 133K, 1 page)
These statistics were collected by the National Council of Welfare and published in the Council's report on Welfare Incomes for 2005 after they were verified to be correct by each jurisdiction.

See Welfare Dependency in Canada - National Statistics

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2008
[Posted online July 2011]
[ PDF version (608K, 141 pages) : http://www.wellington.ca/en/socialservices/resources/SocialAssistanceStatisticalReport2008.pdf ]
Produced by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Directors of Income Support
This report includes a description of, and statistics related to, the welfare system in each province and territory, information about federal-provincial-territorial jurisdictional and funding issues, a bit of historical info on the Canada Assistance Plan and the Canada Health and Social Transfer, etc.
Produced by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Directors of Income Support
This report includes a description of, and statistics related to, the welfare system in each province and territory, information about federal-provincial-territorial jurisdictional and funding issues, a bit of historical info on the Canada Assistance Plan and the Canada Health and Social Transfer, etc.

"In recognition of the growing public demand for comprehensive information on provincial and territorial social assistance programs and caseloads, the Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2008 is the fifth annual joint publication by federal, provincial and territorial governments. The report provides a general overview of social assistance in Canada, as well as a description of income support-related/social assistance programs in each jurisdiction. This report does not include social assistance rates as this information is currently available to the public on most provincial and territorial government Web sites."
(Excerpt from Chapter 1 - Summary)

NOTE: Chapter Two of the report is a seven-page descriptive overview of social assistance in Canada in 2008, comprising a (very) brief history of federal social assistance since 1966 and general information about how welfare works in Canadian provinces and territories (including the treatment of federal child benefits under welfare programs, welfare eligibility conditions and administrative rules, etc.). Other chapters of the report provide, for each province and territory, information on eligibility (including asset and income exemption levels) and benefits (but no actual benefit levels), as well as an impressive number of statistical tables, graphs and charts providing numbers of cases and beneficiaries (time series statistics going back as far as the mid-1990s, depending on the jurisdiction), profile information (age/education/sex of household head, cases by reason for assistance) and even (for most jurisdictions) the percentage of households reporting income.

"Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2008" is online, but not on the HRSDC website. The above links point to a copy of the report that was archived by the Internet Archive. Thanks for nothing, HRSDC.

The Internet Archive also contains the earlier versions of this statistical report:

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2004
http://web.archive.org/web/20110807030546/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/publications/reports/sp-626-09-05e/page00.shtml

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2005
http://web.archive.org/web/20110807030546/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/publications/reports/sd10-3-2004e/page00.shtml

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2006
http://web.archive.org/web/20110807030546/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/publications_resources/social_policy/fpt/page00.shtml

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2007
http://web.archive.org/web/20110807030546/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/publications_resources/social_policy/sasr_2007/page00.shtml

 

Source:
Social Policy
[ Human Resources and Skills Development Canada

*********************
July 2010 commentary left here for posterity:

< Begin social researcher's lament. >

It's great to see the 2007 edition of this report online, but the numbers in this report *are* over three years old --- none of the welfare ripple effects of the economic disaster of 2008 and 2009 are evident in the March 2007 stats in this report. This really isn't timely enough to help in the policy formulation process, nor is it timely enough to ensure accountability with respect to spending by federal, provincial and territorial governments on Canada's social assistance programs.

So why are timely welfare statistics important?
To tell, among other things, how many new welfare cases are "EI exhaustees" (households whose Employment Insurance benefit period has expired) and how many are there because they didn't qualify for EI in the first place. Welfare reporting must be comprehensive AND reasonably current.
Perhaps it's time to farm out the production of welfare statistics and related information to an objective, non-politicized third party...

< /End social researcher's lament. >

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Related statistical reports
from Social Policy Directorate of HRSDC:

Social Assistance in Canada, 1994 (Internet Archive)
---
* Also available from the Government of Canada Web Archive:
http://goo.gl/au93G
Over 40 pages of information on Canadian social assistance programs as they operated in 1994. Much of the information in this document is still as relevant today as it was back then - eligibility, benefits, administrative rules, and more. Includes information about cost-sharing of welfare costs under the Canada Assistance Plan. Question-and-answer format for quick reference. This work was part of a larger study of social assistance in 24 countries released by the OECD early in 1996. I was the author of this report, with a lot of input from a number of colleagues in the Department at the time. If you want a snapshot of what welfare was like in Canada before the Canada Health and Social Transfer in 1996, this is a pretty decent one - and it's free.


Social Security Statistics, Canada and Provinces
1978-79 to 2002-03

http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives/20061209234003/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page00.shtml
OR
http://web.archive.org/web/20070814082442/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page00.shtml
OR:
http://goo.gl/B5rgvQ

NOTE: Since January 2012, this report is no longer available on the website of Human Resources and Skills Development (HRSDC) or its successor, Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC). This report and many others were moved to the web archive collection at Library and Archives Canada (LAC).

[By Gilles, March 1, 2014]

-------------------------------------------

This report is a goldmine of statistical information (beneficiary data and expenditure data) on current and defunct Canadian federal social programs, and even some on provincial/territorial programs.

This report offers 25 years of longitudinal data on costs and numbers of beneficiaries for most programs - over 100 tables - covering a large number of programs --- here's a partial list:
- Child Tax Benefit, Family Allowances, the Child Tax Credit, Old Age Security/Guaranteed Income Supplement/Spouse's Allowance ("The Allowance"), Federal Training and Employment Programs, Federal Goods and Services Tax Credit, the Canada/Quebec Pension Plans, War Veterans' and Civilian War Allowances, Veterans' and Civilians' Disability Pensions, Unemployment/Employment Insurance, the Canada Assistance Plan, Workers' Compensation, Youth Allowances, Social Assistance and Social Services for Registered Indians --- and more...

---------------------------

NOTE : All links below are functional.
Click any link and you'll find the desired content on the website of Archive.org

Preface (short blurb only)
http://web.archive.org/web/20070814082442/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page01.shtml

List of Tables
http://web.archive.org/web/20070814082442/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page02.shtml
Read the Introductory notes at the top of the page and in Appendix A:
http://web.archive.org/web/20070814082442/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page03.shtml
of this report for all methodological notes.
"...Tables in this report have been organized into two parts. Part I presents three Overview Tables which illustrate the trends in social security expenditures by all levels of government for Canada. Part II comprises Component Tables which provide data on beneficiaries and expenditures for individual programs."

Overview Tables:
Table 1:
Total Social Security Expenditures in Canada, 1978-79 to 2002-03

http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/table1a.shtml

Table 2:
http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/table2.shtml
Social Security Expenditures by Welfare Program and Total Health and Education Expenditures, Canada, 1978-79 to 2002-03

Table 3
Expenditure Analyses of Social Security Programs, Canada, 1978-79 to 2002-03

http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/table3.shtml

A number of older tables were removed from this edition of the Social Security Statistics report, including some tables with info on Blind Persons' Allowances, Disabled Persons' Allowances and Unemployed Assistance.
Check older editions of this report for those older stats:
http://web.archive.org/web/20090219214655/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/publications_resources/statistics/index.shtml

Many of the tables are historical and likely of little interest except to historians and CAP-o-philes --- they offer historical caseload and expenditure statistics on each of the CAP cost-sharing components (General Assistance - Homes for Special Care for Children and Adults - Child Welfare - Health Care - Other Welfare Services and Work Activity).

Scroll down the list of tables
[ http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page02.shtml ]
... to find a particular program, then click on its name to access the HTML version of the table (the HTML page includes links to the PDF and Excel versions of the table).

You'll find many key stats tables and some interesting analyses here - only a few of which appear below
- includes links to over two dozen tables (Tables 352-911) with info on federal contributions under the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) and the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST) to the cost of provincial and territorial welfare programs.
NOTE: for more info about CAP, the CHST and the Canada Social Transfer (CST, which replaced the CHST in April 2004), see the Canada Assistance Plan / Canada Health and Social Transfer / Canada Social Transfer Resources page of this site:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/cap.htm

A few sample tables:

Table 360
Total Federal-Provincial Cost-Shared Program Expenditures, 1978-79 to 1999-2000
http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab360.shtml
NOTE: Table 360 traces the evolution/devolution of transfers under the Canada Assistance Plan (in dollars) from 1976 to 1999. No new claims were paid out under CAP after the Canada Health and Social Transfer came into effect in April 1996; amounts shown as CAP expenditures for the fiscal years after 1995-96 are final settlements with each jurisdiction for all outstanding commitments by the federal government.

Table 361
Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) - Number of Beneficiaries of General Assistance (including dependants), as of March 31, 1979 to 1996

http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab361.shtml
- This is a key table for research on welfare programs - welfare dependency statistics by jurisdiction over the years. These are the final, definitive numbers.

Table 362
Total Federal-Provincial Cost-Shared Expenditures for General Assistance, by Province/Territory, 1978-79 to 1995-96

http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab362.shtml
- this table should be of special interest for welfare historians and number-crunchers - it shows exactly when Canadian government spending on welfare (by the federal and provincial/territorial governments) started looking a little fuzzier. When the feds imposed the cap on CAP (max. 5% annual increase in total CAP payments) in Ontario, Alberta and BC in the early 1990s, those three provinces stopped reporting how much of their CAP dollars were going to welfare (vs. other CAP components covered under the same federal contribution). Table 362 shows that as of 1991-92, the federal contribution to those three provinces for General Assistance appears as "n/a" - so it's been impossible to produce a national figure since then. Unless, of course, one wanders over into the minefield of provincial government welfare statistics, where welfare programs (and related expenditures) have undergone a major transformation. If you *do* want to check out welfare stats for each Canadian jurisdiction, your best starting point is the Key Welfare Links Page of this website - http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/welfare.htm - which includes links to welfare stats in each province and territory where they're available.

Table 434
Total Federal Payments under CAP, 1978-79 to 1999-2000

http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab434.shtml
[The note under table 360 also applies to this table. ]

Table 435
Number of Beneficiaries (including dependants) of Provincial and Municipal Social Assistance, as of March 31, 1997 to 2003
http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab435.shtml

Table 438
Provincial and Municipal Social Assistance Program Expenditures, 1980-81 to 2002-03
http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab438.shtml

Table 526
Provincial and Territorial Children's Benefits and Earned Income Supplements, Expenditures for Fiscal years 1978-79 to 2002-03
http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab526.shtml

Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/home.shtml
Dept. name changed to Employment and Social Development Canada

Archive source:
Archive.org
https://archive.org/

Official Source:
Collections Canada --- BROKEN LINK!
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/
[Library and Archives Canada]


Historical Statistics of Canada (2nd edition, 1983)
Jointly produced by the Social Science Federation of Canada and Statistics Canada
Go to the home page and browse the table of contents of this excellent historical resource. Tables are arranged in sections with an introduction explaining the content of each section, the principal sources of data for each table, and general explanatory notes regarding the statistics. This online statistical collection complements and expands on Human Resources Development Canada's Social Security Statistics, Canada and Provinces report.
Source:
Statistics Canada


Historical Statistics of Canada contains links to over 1,000 statistical tables (downloadable in Excel format) on the social, economic and institutional conditions of Canada from the start of the Confederation in 1867 to the mid-1970s. It's worth downloading the free Excel 97/2000 Spreadsheet File Viewer from Microsoft if you don't have Excel software on your machine.

Here's a sample section:

Section C: Social Security - by T. Russell Robinson, Health and Welfare Canada
Contains seven pages of historical information on the evolution of Canadian social programs, plus links to over 180 tables organized under the following headings: Federal Income Security Programs - Federal and Provincial Income Insurance Programs - Cost-shared Federal-Provincial Income Security Programs - Federal and Provincial Social Service Programs - Provincial-Municipal Income Security Programs - Government Expenditures on Social Security by Broad Program Areas. Unfortunately, the section on the Canada Assistance Plan provides stats only from 1970 to 1975, but you'll find other historical gems here, like federal transfers to the provinces and territories, 1947 to 1975, Unemployment insurance account, 1942 to 1976, Old Age Pensions recipients for Canada and by province, March 1928 to 1951, and much more...

Great collection of historical Canadian social program stats!

BACK (to the list of topics at the top of this page)

CAP, Rights and Workfare

Some social advocates speak widely about rights under CAP that were lost with the CHST and rampant workfare in Canada. It is true that governments have gotten meaner and leaner. But there is some confusion between "rights under CAP" and conditions for federal-provincial-territorial cost-sharing of approved social programs.

Most of what is called workfare today in Canada is actually a combination of tighter welfare eligibility criteria, benefit cuts, a broadening of the definition of an "employable" person and more stringent enforcement of rules regarding reciprocity that existed even before CAP (and continue to exist today).

The Preamble to the Canada Assistance Plan (1966) reads as follows:
"WHEREAS the Parliament of Canada, recognizing that the provision of adequate assistance to and in respect of persons in need and the prevention and removal of the causes of poverty and dependence on public assistance are the concern of all Canadians, is desirous of encouraging the further development and extension of assistance and welfare services programs throughout Canada by sharing more fully with the provinces in the cost thereof; (...) enacts (...) the Canada Assistance Plan."

The statute itself and its Regulations focus on the logistics (definitions, exclusions, formulae, etc.) of the federal-provincial/territorial cost-sharing agreement in the areas of social assistance and a number of welfare services.
The CAP statute does not confer any rights to Canadian citizens in need.

This is because the CAP statute was a legislative mechanism that provided a framework for federal social transfers to provinces and territories. The CAP program itself was much more than the sum of its legislative parts, of course - it represented the federal government's commitment of financial support to the lower levels of government towards the improvement of social programs of last resort and the expansion of a number of social services across Canada starting in the mid- to late 60s.

The Right to Welfare
For a detailed analysis (~25 printed pages) of "the right to social assistance" with references to the Constitution Act, the Charter of Rights and the change from CAP to the CHST, see the Submission by the Charter Committee on Poverty Issues (CCPI) to the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights on the occasion of the Review of the Third Report of Canada at the Committee's 19th Session (November - December, 1998)

NOTE: The CCPI submission includes information on welfare case law in a number of jurisdictions that you definitely won't find elsewhere - dealing with the right to social assistance, adequacy of social assistance benefits, provincial contravention of national "standards" under CAP, sections 7 and 15 of the Charter of Rights, etc.
Source : Charter Committee on Poverty Issues


Conditions for Cost-Sharing under CAP

What social advocates often refer to as "rights" under CAP were in fact conditions set by the federal government for provinces and territories to qualify for 50% reimbursement of approved social expenditures. (The "cap on CAP" changed this financial relationship with the three richest provinces in 1990-91 - see the next section below.)

There were three such conditions, as well as one administrative requirement, for a Canadian province or territory to qualify for cost-sharing from the federal government. They were as follows.
- An applicant's eligibility for assistance had to be solely based on a test that "takes into account the budgetary requirements (...) and the income and resources available to [that] person to meet those requirements", and no other condition (e.g. work-for-welfare could not be a condition of initial eligibility),
- An appeal system had to be published as part of  the jurisdiction's social assistance legislation, and appeal information conveyed to all applicants,
- No residency requirement in Canada or in a particular province or territory could be imposed as a condition of eligibility for social assistance applicants, and
- Program information and statistics had to be provided to federal authorities for the administration of CAP (caseloads, expenditures, program changes, etc.)

A common misconception of many social researchers and advocacy groups about CAP revolves around "the right to receive welfare without having to work for it..."

In fact, reciprocity was always an inherent aspect of CAP and the social assistance programs that it funded at 50%, at least for employable people.

The "right to welfare without work" argument is correct only in the narrow sense, with respect to initial eligibility. Any province or territory that wanted to qualify for 50% cost-sharing under CAP had to agree to determine eligibility for assistance on the sole basis of a test of financial need and no other condition. CAP prevented the provinces and territories from saying to a welfare applicant: "If you want this welfare cheque, you have to work X number of hours at this particular job."

Workfare or Work Activity Projects?

There's a popular misconception about the legislative authority for the no-workfare rule under CAP. Section 15(3) of the Canada Assistance Plan is often cited as the source for this cost-sharing condition. ("Every agreement made pursuant to this section shall (a) provide that no person shall be denied assistance because he refuses or has refused to take part in a work activity project"). In fact, section 15 is under Part III of the CAP statute, entitled Work Activity Projects.

Here's what the Appendix to the 1985 Nielsen report on CAP says about the work activity project component of CAP: "Part III made provision for sharing in the costs of work activity programs - sheltered work programs designed to increase a person's capacity to take advantage of employment-oriented programs, or to provide socially useful work for unemployable persons."

Work activity projects never really played a mainstream role in SA - CAP spending in this area never reached $9 million/yr. even when total CAP spending almost topped the $8 billion/yr. mark, because Work Activity Projects was a very small segment of the caseload covered under CAP - unemployable persons in sheltered work programs.

The legislative authority for the no-workfare rule is section 6(2).

"An agreement shall provide that the province
(a) will provide financial aid or other assistance to or in respect of any person in the province who is a person in need described in paragraph (a) of the definition of "person in need" in section 2, in an amount or manner that takes into account the basic requirements of that person;
(b) will, in determining whether a person is a person described in paragraph (a) and the assistance to be provided to that person, take into account the budgetary requirements of that person and the income and resources available to that person to meet those requirements;
(...)"

In plain English:

- in order to qualify for federal sharing under CAP, a province or territory had to provide financial aid or other assistance to any "person in need" - defined in section 2 of the CAP statute as "...a person who, by reason of inability to obtain employment, loss of the principal family provider, illness, disability, age or other cause of any kind acceptable to the provincial authority, is found to be unable, on the basis of a test established by the provincial authority that takes into account the budgetary requirements of that person and the income and resources available to that person to meet those requirements, to provide adequately for himself, or for himself and his dependants or any of them"]

- for CAP purposes, the definition also included a child in need of protection and a deceased person (i.e., the federal authority would share 50% of the cost of approved child welfare services and the cost of funerals and burials of indigent people.)

- the province/territory had to provide assistance on the basis of any budget deficit between the person's non-exempted financial resources and his needs (including those of his dependants). Initial eligibility had to be based solely on the needs test, and it could not include a mandatory undertaking on the part of the applicant to work for his basic benefits. The principle of reciprocity was, however, encouraged [and even enforced] by CAP. A province could say "now that you've qualified on the basis of the needs test, you must, as a condition of *continuing* eligibility, accept any reasonable offer of employment or opportunities to improve your employability." Of course, the operative word there is "reasonable" --- since the demise of CAP, that's become a moot point, because the more conservative provinces have had successful caseload purges based on the American Work-First approach, and 'reasonable' now means "whatever gets you off the system"...

However, all Canadian jurisdictions' social assistance legislation contained continuing eligibility criteria, conditions that clients had to respect to stay eligible for welfare. In the case of employable people, that included the obligation to accept any reasonable offer of work, training or academic upgrading that was offered by the government authority, or to be actively looking for work otherwise.

For at least the last 40 years, every Canadian jurisdiction's social assistance regulations have provided for the suspension, cancellation, reduction or refusal of benefits where an employable client refuses to participate in one of the measures listed above. These penalties vary from one jurisdiction to another, and they all remain in force into the 21st century.

Across Canada, sanctions apply to any employable person who is unwilling to participate in a formal (signed) "action plan" or other similar type of contract between that person and the provincial/territorial government. That plan or contract might include any or all of remedial education, training, job preparation and even job placement. Refusal to participate in any measure that is deemed to be in the person's best interests can result in refusal of assistance or lower benefits. This has always been the standard for welfare programs in Canada, except during periods of economic downturn when a provincial government might relax its reciprocity requirements. The rationale for this relaxation of the rules is pretty common-sense, to wit: there's no point in requiring employable welfare clients to submit a predetermined minimum number of job applications each month (to remain eligible for welfare) during a period when employers just aren't hiring because of a slowdown in the Canadian economy.

There is a fundamental difference between the reciprocity condition that was inherent in programs under CAP and workfare - it's the extent of compulsion. CAP supported provincial rules that required employable people on welfare to do something to help themselves. That could involve participating in an activity to improve their employability, like going back to school, participating in a training program or even working in a job placement or apprenticeship. It might also involve actively looking for a job. In the latter case, CAP even tolerated provincial rules requiring proof of job search efforts by clients. What CAP did not support was workfare in its traditional sense - the requirement to work for a specific number of hours in a designated job for basic welfare benefits.

Patricia Evans' article in the 1995 book entitled Workfare: Does it Work? Is it Fair? from the Institute for Research on Public Policy provides a thorough analysis of work-for-welfare provisions in Canadian welfare programs. It's based largely on a questionnaire completed by government welfare administrators in each jurisdiction. This is an excellent source of information on how sanctions were imposed in each province and territory under CAP cost-shared programs when an employable applicant or recipient refused to participate in employability measure and job search requirements.
The Canadian Welfare Reforms page of this site includes A few words about workfare, which examines the difference between formal and de facto workfare.

BACK (to the list of topics at the top of this page)

The "cap on CAP"

In 1990, the federal government, in order to reduce the federal budget deficit, decided to cut expenditures and limit the growth of payments made to financially stronger provinces under the Canada Assistance Plan. In a nutshell, the federal government imposed a ceiling (or "cap") of 5% on expenditures under the Canada Assistance Plan to Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia, the three Canadian provinces not receiving federal Equalization payments. In other words, the annual increase in the total CAP payment to each those three provinces could not increase more than 5% per year. The 1990 federal budget set the measure in place for a two-year period and the 1991 budget extended the period for a further three years, until the end of 1994-95. BC challenged the unilateral federal action in court.

The 1991 Supreme Court of Canada 'cap on CAP' Court decision is a detailed account of the BC court challenge to the federal government's unilateral imposition of an annual ceiling on federal contributions to provinces for social programs under the Canada Assistance Plan. It contains the best information I've found anywhere about the background, both the federal and BC positions, and the Supreme Court ruling. In short, the Supreme Court rules in favour of the principle of parliamentary sovereignty reflected in s. 42(1) of the federal Interpretation Act, which states that "Every Act [including the Canada Assistance Plan...] shall be construed as to reserve to Parliament the power of repealing or amending it...".
 
 
The 1994 Social Security Review

In 1994, the federal government launched a national Social Security Review (SSR). A number of papers were released before the review wound down after the 1995 federal budget. If you go to a municipal or university library, you should be able to find a collection comprising a discussion paper and about five or six supplementary papers released in the months that followed.  These supplementary papers offer a wealth of information on unemployment/employment insurance reform, employability in the 90s, families and children, persons with disabilities, and other topics. The main discussion paper and four of the supplementary papers appear below...

Improving Social Security in Canada : A Discussion Paper
October 1994
(212K, 61 pages)
Improving Social Security in Canada is the main document of the 1994 Social Security Review.
It deals with the following issues : the need for reform, working: jobs in a new economy, learning: making lifelong learning a way of life
, and security: building opportunity for people in need . The section entitled "Security: Building opportunity for people in need" focuses on the federal government's role in Canadian social security programs in 1994-95 and proposed reform options. (Click on the title of the report, then scroll down the page to the table of contents to find the Security section)
Here's what you'll find in the security section:
Introduction - What the federal government does now - The Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) - The Child Tax Benefit - The need for CAP reform - The goals for reform - Approaches to reform - Possible first steps - Longer-term approaches to reform

Improving Social Security in Canada
Reforming the Canada Assistance Plan: A Supplementary Paper
1994
(121K, 46 pages)

Improving Social Security in Canada
Guaranteed Annual Income: A Supplementary Paper
1994
(117K, 37 pages)
PDF version - 150K, 53 pages (much cleaner than HTML version...)

*For more GAI information, see the Canadian Social Research Links Guaranteed Annual Income page

Improving Social Security in Canada
Income Security for Children: A Supplementary Paper

1994

(111K, 25 pages)
This paper is an important resource for the study of the National Child Benefit and the federal child support initiative. It offers a 1993-94 snapshot of child poverty in Canada and the federal and provincial programs to assist families with children. It also offers a detailed economist's-eye-view of three different approaches to reform of the benefits available under those programs : (1) enhancing and re-targetting child tax benefits; (2) an integrated federal-provincial benefit; and (3) an enhanced Working Income Supplement. Extensive analysis of the impact of many options on families in different income brackets, and of the winners and losers under each of those options...

Improving Social Security in Canada
Persons With Disabilities: A Supplementary Paper
1994
(178K, 87 pages)
NOTE: Unlike the preceding SSR links which are pointing to HTML pages, this one points to a .TXT file (smaller file size)

Related Links:

Establishing an Effective Social Policy Agenda with Constrained Resources
by Peter Hicks (1995)
- An excellent article written by a senior HRDC official at the time. It presents some interesting historical information about the evolution of Canadian social programs from the sixties to the early nineties.
- Social historians will be particularly interested in the author's analysis of the 1994 SSR discussion paper...

Social Assistance in Canada, 1994
* Also available from the Government of Canada Web Archive:
http://goo.gl/au93G

This is an unpublished manuscript that I wrote when I was in the Social Policy Branch of Human Resources Development Canada early in 1994 in the context of a study of social assistance in the 24 member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). It's a detailed account of Canadian social assistance policies in place before CAP was replaced by the CHST. The printed version of the full questionnaire is over 40 pages.

BACK (to the list of topics at the top of this page)

 
From the Canada Assistance Plan to the Canada Health and Social Transfer

The February 1995 federal budget announced that federal payments to provinces and territories would be frozen at the previous year's level and that the Canada Assistance Plan would be replaced by a block grant the following April.

Budget Speech (February 27, 1995) - The Honourable Paul Martin, P.C., M.P. (Minister of Finance)

Towards a New System of Transfers to the Provinces - 1995 federal Budget Speech excerpt (from the link above) announcing the introduction, as of April 1996, of the Canada Social Transfer (later renamed Canada Health and Social Transfer)

The Canada Social Transfer: A New Transfer System - 1995 federal Budget Fact Sheets

---

Who Gets What? The 1999 Federal Budget and the CHST
by Finn Poschmann, William B.P. Robson,
and Daniel Schwanen, C.D. Howe Institute
February 26, 1999
(PDF file, 45K)
*includes historical information on social programs and fed-prov financial arrangements from pre-CAP to the CHST

BACK (to the list of topics at the top of this page)

Analyses/Critiques of CAP and the CHST

The 1995 Budget and Block Funding (PDF file - 178K, 35 pages)
Spring 1995
"This report describes welfare in Canada prior to the birth of the Canada Assistance Plan and the huge advances that came about because of CAP. It analyzes the 1995 budget proposals and the disastrous impact they would have on real people with real needs. It outlines a better alternative for funding welfare and social services."
["Bluntly put, the proposed Canada Health and Social Transfer is the worst social policy initiative undertaken by the federal government in more than a generation." Report, page 26]
Source:
National Council of Welfare (NCW)
NOTE: Search the NCW website for the link to this report; the site was relaunched in summer 2010...

------------------------

The Restructuring of the Canadian Welfare State: Ideology and Policy
Maureen Baker
June 1997
- includes information about the history of Canadian social programs and the transition from CAP to CHST.
- the above link takes you to the abstract and a link to the 33-page report

------------------------

Canada Assistance Plan - Chapter 15, 1989 Report of the Auditor General of Canada
- Informative chapter (full text) of the report, concentrating on the federal administration and delivery of the Canada Assistance Plan. Under "Monitoring and Verification of Compliance", you will find plenty of information about federal-provincial CAP cost-sharing conditions.
There is also an excellent section on CAP accountability and information issues.
A few quotes to tempt you:
- "Difficulties exist as to the definition of adequacy [of welfare rates]..."
- "There are inconsistencies relating to residency requirements..."
- "The legislated requirement to produce a CAP annual report [for Parliament]..."
(Note: Under the CHST, there is no legislated requirement for the federal government to report to Parliament on the effect of its social transfers on "persons in need" in Canada.)

------------------------

Study of Key Federal Social Programs  - Chapter 6, 1994 Report of the Auditor General of Canada*
- heaps of information on CAP, Unemployment Insurance
* The Auditor General of Canada website has an extensive online library of reports going back to 1982, many with sections on (or references to) the Canada Assistance Plan. The two links above are from that list. Scroll down the home page until you see the complete list of reports by year. You can browse the reports individually, or just type "Canada Assistance Plan" in the search engine box for a list of relevant reports (a lot faster).

------------------------

Women and the Equality Deficit: The Impact of Restructuring Canada's Social Programs (PDF)
March 1998

Shelagh Day and Gwen Brodsky

Funded by Status of Women Canada's Policy Research Fund

------------------------

Benefiting Canada's Children: Perspectives on Gender and Social Responsibility (PDF)
March 1998
Christa Freiler and Judy Cerny
Child Povery Action Group
- 95-page report (+ appendices), explores the causes of poverty in  Canada and the challenges and constraints in addressing poverty and vulnerability in a post-CHST world.
- includes an interesting review of available information on the National Child Benefit (which was to be implemented in July 1998) and provincial programs for children in place in early 1998.

Funded by Status of Women Canada's Policy Research Fund

------------------------

No More! CAP-in-hand: Social Services in a Post-CAP Era
Report of the 1996 Social Services Restructuring Conference

National Union of Public and General Employees (NUPGE)

- *This is an excellent analysis of the social services cuts in each Canadian province and the changes going on around the introduction of the CHST

- Special focus on social assistance reforms during the transition from CAP to the CHST

------------------------

The Caledon Institute of Social Policy has an extensive list of online reports and studies about the Canada Assistance Plan and the Canada Health and Social Transfer. To find these quickly, just enter Canada Health and Social Transfer in the publications search box (the link is in the left-hand column on the Caledon home page)

Two sample files from Caledon:

How Finance Re-Formed Social Policy (PDF file)
Ken Battle and Sherri Torjman
April 1995
"How Finance Re-Formed Social Policy analyzes the implications of the 1995 federal Budget for social policy. It explores the likely impact of the Canada Health and Social Transfer on welfare, social services and medicare that will result from both the substantial loss of funds and the withdrawal of the Canada Assistance Plan legislative base. Other Budget announcements regarding the Human Resources Investment Fund, Unemployment Insurance and pensions are also discussed. The paper places these announcements within the broader context of the substantial changes to social programs that have been introduced over the past 10 years by both the Tories and the Liberals, largely through budgetary measures. The report concludes that the 1995 Budget represents a fundamental turning point in Canadian social policy that will see a decline in the role and influence of the federal government in welfare, social services and health care."

The Dangers of Block Funding (PDF file)
Ken Battle and Sherri Torjman
February 1995
"The Dangers of Block Funding rings the alarm bell on rumours that the federal government will replace the Canada Assistance Plan’s cost-shared transfers to the provinces for welfare and social services with a ‘mega-block fund’ that would combine federal financial support to the provinces for health, postsecondary education, welfare and social services."


From the
National Council of Welfare (NCW):

---
*
NOTE : The National Council of Welfare closed its doors and shut down its website at the end of September 2012.
For more information, see http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/ncw.htm

The links to the three reports below are functional because the files are copied to my web server.
---

Over the years, the Council has produced many reports on poverty and welfare, but there are three that stand out in my mind as milestone reports on the history of welfare in Canada, at least since the 1980s.

1. 1987
Welfare in Canada: The Tangled Safety Net
(PDF - 2.7MB, 131 pages)
November 1987
Tangled Safety Net examines the following issues in Canadian social assistance network of programs:
* Complex rules * Needs-testing * Rates of assistance * Enforcement * Appeals * Recommendations
This report is the first comprehensive national analysis of social assistance programs operated by the provincial, territorial and municipal governments. These programs function as the safety net for Canadians and are better known by their everyday name ‘welfare’.

Version française :
Le bien-être social au Canada : Un filet de sécurité troué (PDF - 3Mo., 138 pages)
Novembre 1987
[ NOTA : Si vous trouvez un lien vers ce fichier en français, veuillez communiquer avec moi pour le partager.
Merci! gilseg@rogers.com ]

____________

2. 1992
Welfare Reform
(PDF - 2.8MB, 61 pages)
Summer 1992
This report is an update of the 1987 Tangled Safety Net, but it presents information by jurisdiction rather than by issue - covers all provinces and territories.

Version française:
Réforme du bien-être social (PDF - 3,5Mo., 63 pages)

____________

3. 1997
Another Look at Welfare Reform
(PDF - 6.75MB, 134 pages)
Autumn 1997
- an in-depth analysis of changes in Canadian welfare programs in the 1990s. The report focuses on the provincial and territorial reforms that preceded the repeal of the Canada Assistance Plan and those that followed the implementation of the Canada Health and Social Transfer in April 1996.
[Proactive disclosure : I did the research for, and wrote the provincial-territorial section of, this report while I was on a one-year secondment to the Council. Gilles ]

Version française:
Un autre regard sur la réforme du bien-être social (PDF - 8Mo., 148 pages)

---

Companion document to
Another Look:

Overview of Provincial (and Territorial)
Welfare Reforms in the 1990s

October 1998
Fifteen pages of research notes used in the production of Another Look at Welfare Reform.
HINT: There's a WEALTH of information on provincial-territorial welfare reforms in these pages that didn't make it to the final report!

-------------------------------------------------

Source:
National Council of Welfare
Established in 1969, the Council is an advisory group to the Minister of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (originally the Minister of Health and Welfare Canada). The mandate of the Council is to advise the Minister regarding any matter relating to social development that the Minister may refer to the Council for its consideration or that the Council considers appropriate.

October 6 (2012)
The National Council of Welfare closed its doors and shut down its website at the end of September 2012.
For more information, see http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/ncw.htm


BACK to the list of topics

..
A State of the Art Review of Income Security Reform in Canada
Jane Pulkingham & Gordon Ternowetsky (1998
International Development Research Centre*
(Click on the title of the report above to go directly to the table of contents.
The entire report is online)

- Includes an extensive, detailed overview of income security reforms in Canada in the 1990s, specifically around the Canada Health and Social Transfer, a review and typology of current research in virtually every area of federal and provincial/territorial social programs and a section on the impact of changes since the CHST and related social reforms. 
- Recommended reading for anyone looking for information about the critical forces that have shaped income security programs in Canada and that continue to do so as we approach the new millennium. 
- Topics covered include welfare reforms, the National Child Benefit and child poverty, unemployment/employment insurance reforms, pension reform and the retirement income system, labour market policies, the Social Union, income security reforms in the broader context of social security reform, etc. 
*The International Development Research Centre website also includes many links to information on similar reforms in developing countries 
"The International Development Research Centre is a public corporation created by the Canadian government to help communities in the developing world find solutions to social, economic, and environmental problems through research." 
Complete reports online include the following:

Social Policy Challenges in a Global Society
by Keith Banting (1995
- An extensive and excellent treatise on globalization, trade agreements, social need and reforms. 

 Establishing an Effective Social Policy Agenda with Constrained Resources
by Peter Hicks (1995
- An excellent article written by a senior HRDC official at the time. It presents some interesting historical information about the evolution of Canadian social programs from the sixties to the early nineties. 
- Social historians will be particularly interested in the author's analysis of the 1994 SSR discussion paper... 

Social Policy Reform in Canada Under Regional Economic Integration by Albert Berry
- This article covers issues such as the harmonization and convergence of social programs, rationalization, privatization, cost-saving, competitiveness and social policy reform.


*The International Development Research Centre website also includes many links to information on similar reforms in developing countries 
"The International Development Research Centre is a public corporation created by the Canadian government to help communities in the developing world find solutions to social, economic, and environmental problems through research."

BACK (to the list of topics at the top of this page)

Post-CHST


From Finance Canada

NOTE: This is a key resource for anyone who wants to know about federal transfers to provinces and territories for health, post-secondary education, social assistance (welfare) and social services (including early childhood development). Federal Transfers to Provinces and Territories is a permanent and helpful feature of the Department's website; thanks, Finance Canada folks!
Near the bottom of each page, you'll find the date of the latest update to that page.

Federal Transfers to Provinces and Territories
This is the most comprehensive collection of federal government information you'll find online concerning federal transfers to the provinces and territories for health, post-secondary education, social assistance and social services (including early childhood development). From April 1996 until March 2004, federal government contributions for these program areas were combined in a single block transfer called the Canada Health and Social Transfer. In April 2004, the CHSt was split into (1) the Canada Health Transfer, to cover a portion of provincial-territorial health costs, and (2) the Canada Social Transfer, to cover the rest of the areas listed in the first sentence in this paragraph

Major Federal Transfers to Provinces and Territories
- transfers to each province and territory, covering the latest five-year period, for the four major transfer programs:
the Canada Health Transfer, the Canada Social Transfer, Equalization and Territorial Formula Financing.
The following links are to brief descriptions of each of those transfers.

Canada Health Transfer
"the primary federal transfer to provinces and territories in support of health care"

Canada Social Transfer
"...a federal block transfer to provinces and territories in support of post-secondary education, social assistance and social services, including early childhood development and early learning and childcare"

Equalization Program

Associated Equalization

Territorial Formula FinancingTax Transfers

---

Brief History of the Health and Social Transfers
- covers the period from the 50s and 60s until 2011

Federal Support for Children
- incl. a brief description of, and payment information for, the Universal Child Care Plan (2006 and 2007), the Early Learning and Child Care Initiative (2005), the Early Learning and Child Care Framework Agreement (2003), and the Early Childhood Development Agreement (2000)
NOTE: This list formerly included Support for First Nations and Aboriginal Children, but this program was cut by the Harper Government.

---

Federal welfare spending factoids:

* In 1995-96, the final year of the Canada Assistance Plan, Ottawa paid out almost $8 Billion under CAP (see note below). [ Source ]
*That's $10.5 Billion in 2010 dollars.
[ Source ]
* Of that amount, the social assistance portion made up about 80-85% - or $8 Billion in 2010 dollars. (see what made up the remaining 15-20%)
[Source: none, except my own recollection of the traditional proportional breakdown of CAP dollars]
* For 2010-11, the Canada Social Transfer (see note below) will reach $11 Billion.
[ Source ]
* Of that amount, the social programs portion is estimated by federal officials to be nearly $6.6 Billion.
[ Source ]
NOTE: Amounts paid out specifically for welfare under the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) cannot be compared with those under the Canada Social Transfer (CST) because the latter is a block fund that also covers provincial-territorial post-secondary education expenditures and early learning and child care. The federal block fund doesn't stipulate how much of the total amount must be allocated to each of those areas, so you'll occasionally find discrepancies between information on welfar4e expenditures for the same period produced by provincial-territorial governments and reports prepared by federal officials. The proof's in the pudding : in the last factoid above, the statement "the social programs portion is estimated by federal officials to be nearly $6.6 Billion" [bolding added] is a direct quote from the federal Department of Finance (check the source link). Ottawa must resort to "notional allocation of federal support among priority areas" (another quote from the same source) - notional meaning "our best educated guess based on the trends that we monitor" rather than relying on provincial government reports that often allocate amounts differently from the way that the feds do it. And so the game of numbers goes on.
Accountability?
Transparency?
Ha.

 

A Study of Federal Transfers to the Provinces and Territories
December 2008
"(...) The federal government uses a number of mechanisms to transfer funds to the provinces and territories for general areas of spending such as health or for specific purposes such as improving infrastructure. In 2006–07, these federal transfers amounted to approximately $50 billion, or just under 23 percent of federal spending. Our study examined the three main mechanisms used by the federal government to transfer funds to the provinces and territories. We also looked at the nature and extent of conditions attached to these transfers."
Source:
Chapter 1 of the
2008 December Report of the Auditor General of Canada

February 5, 2009

[
Office of the Auditor General of Canada ]

Government of Canada Support to Provinces and Territories at an All-Time High
December 18, 2009
The Honourable Jim Flaherty, Minister of Finance, announced today that total transfers to provinces and territories will increase by $2.4 billion in 2010-11, bringing total federal support to $54.4 billion, the highest level ever. “Our Government is pleased to be providing unprecedented and growing federal transfer support that will help to provide the services, programs and assistance that Canadians rely upon, particularly in these difficult economic times,” said Minister Flaherty. “Transfers in support of health care and social services are a top priority for our Government as we transition our economy through the current challenging economic times.” Equalization payments to provinces for 2010-11 will total $14.4 billion, an increase of $187 million. The overall program is growing in line with the economy, with provincial amounts reflecting changes in the ability of provinces to raise revenues.
- includes a table showing Transfer Payments to Provinces and Territories for 2009-2010 and 2010-11.
Source:
Department of Finance Canada


NOTES:
1. For all links to info concerning federal contributions to provincial-territorial health care costs and fiscal imbalance between the two levels of government, go to the Canadian Social Research Links Medicare Debate in Canada Links page
2. The content below is generally arranged in reverse chronological order; the top link is the one most recently added to this page (but not always the most recent in terms of dates)...


The Canada Social Transfer
By James Gauthier and Shahrzad Mobasher Fard
Social Affairs Division
Revised 23 July 2009
[ PDF version - 56K, 3 pages ]
The Canada Social Transfer (CST) is the primary federal contribution in support of provincial programs related to post-secondary education, social assistance and social services, and programs for children in Canada. This short paper offers an overview of the Canada Social Transfer (CST) that includes the amounts payable to provinces and territories in cash transfers from 2004–2005 to 2013–2014, along with information on related tax point transfers and associated equalization. It also includes information on the change in the CST Formula since 2007-2008 and the impact of that change.
Source:
Library of Parliament Research Publications
HINT: Click the link above to access several hundred reports by this research group, all organized by category.

Related link:

Canada Social Transfer
(...) The CST is calculated on an equal per capita cash basis to reflect the Government’s commitment to ensure that general-purpose transfers provide equal support for all Canadians. Prior to that, the CST was calculated on an equal per capita basis combining the value of both tax and cash transfers.
Source:
Federal Transfers to Provinces and Territories
[ Department of Finance Canada ]

-------------

RECENT CANADIAN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT REPORTS ABOUT
FEDERAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO PROVINCIAL-TERRITORIAL
WELFARE COSTS TABLED IN PARLIAMENT:

NONE.

ZILCH.

NADA.

NYET.

In the old days (under the Canada Assistance Plan or "CAP" from 1966 to 1996), the federal government actually gave a shit about helping people in need AND about government accountability for program dollars. The federal Department of Health and Welfare was required by law to table, in the House of Commons, an annual report on the operation of provincial and territorial welfare programs and social services in Canada, in the same manner as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services presents annual reports on TANF and welfare dependence to Congress.

In April 1996, a block fund called the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST) replaced CAP's 50-50 cost-sharing as the statutory mechanism for determining federal contributions to provincial/territorial welfare programs. [ See A History of the Health and Social Transfers] Neither the CHST nor its successor, the Canada Social Transfer (since April 2004), contains rules regarding the production of reports about welfare for tabling and discussion in the Parliament of Canada. In fact, the last national public report about welfare in Canada that was tabled and discussed in the House of Commons was the final CAP Annual Report for 1995-96. In my view, that's not much accountability for a program of this magnitude. The CST will cost the Canadian taxpayer almost $11 billion in 2009-10 in cash transfers alone, all without any debate or even discussion in the House of Commons.

Because the CST is a block fund, and because it covers post-secondary education, early learning and childcare as well as welfare and social services, it's no longer possible to calculate how much each province and territory receives annually from Ottawa specifically earmarked for welfare. That's why you won't see any Canadian equivalent to Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress in the near future. That, and the fact that there doesn't appear to be any political will by the ruling federal party to support provincial-territorial programs of last resort at this time.

NOTE:
On the subject of federal funding and accountability for provincial welfare programs, the Canadian government's approach pales in comparison with the U.S., where federal law requires the tabling of the two following reports on state programs under TANF to Congress:

* Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF): Eighth Annual Report to Congress - June 2009
* Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2008 - December 2008

American and Canadian welfare systems should NOT be compared without situating each within its social policy context.
The American definition of welfare under TANF applies only to families with children.


New from the Office of the Auditor General of Canada:

A Study of Federal Transfers to the Provinces and Territories
December 2008
"(...) The federal government uses a number of mechanisms to transfer funds to the provinces and territories for general areas of spending such as health or for specific purposes such as improving infrastructure. In 2006–07, these federal transfers amounted to approximately $50 billion, or just under 23 percent of federal spending. Our study examined the three main mechanisms used by the federal government to transfer funds to the provinces and territories. We also looked at the nature and extent of conditions attached to these transfers."

News Release:
Auditor General’s study sheds light on how
the federal government transfers funds to provinces and territories

(Chapter 1—A Study of Federal Transfers to the Provinces and Territories - December 2008 Report of the Auditor General)
February 5, 2009
Auditor General Sheila Fraser’s Report, tabled today in the House of Commons, contains a study [see the link immediately below] of the three main mechanisms used by the federal government to transfer funds to the provinces and territories. In 2006–07, these transfers amounted to about $50 billion, just under 23 percent of federal spending. They are major sources of funds for services provided to Canadians in areas such as health and post-secondary education.

Source:
2008 December Report of the Auditor General of Canada (February 5, 2009)
[ Office of the Auditor General of Canada ]

Dorothea Crittenden: Canada's first woman deputy minister
reformed welfare and social assistance

December 24, 2008
Obituary
By Gay Abbate
"(...) Dorothea Crittenden was a trailblazer who devoted her life to helping build Ontario's welfare system. She was also a key player in the creation of the Canada Assistance Plan, a federal-provincial cost-sharing plan that guarantees all Canadians equal access to social assistance."

As a rule, I don't include links to obituaries on my site or in my newsletter. In this case, however, I've made an exception based on the valuable historical insights that I've found in the obituary, and moreso in the paper below by John Stapleton, and that I wanted to share with Canadian social historians --- more pieces of the puzzle, as it were...
[...and no, I won't link to your Aunt Bertha's obituary. Don't even ask.]

The above obituary by Gay Abbate appeared in The Globe and Mail on December 23, and it's based in part on information provided by Dr. Crittenden in the course of interviews with John Stapleton in 1991.
The content of those interviews appears in the paper below, which provides valuable historical information about Canadian social policy from the Depression to the mid-1970's when she was Ontario's Deputy Minister of Community and Social Services. Of particular interest to Canadian social historians, I'm sure, will be sections like * What Ontario gave up for CAP * Project 500 in the 1970s * the cap on CAP (I should note that the cap on CAP was in the early 1990s and not the 1980s, as noted in the above obituary. John's paper has the correct info on that.)

Coming of Age in a Man’s World:
The Life, Times and Wisdom of Dorothea Crittenden,
Canada’s First Female Deputy Minister
(PDF - 355K, 22 pages)
January 2007
Source:
Open Policy (John Stapleton's website)

New from Queen's University School of Policy Studies:

Social Policy in Canada - Looking Back, Looking Ahead (PDF - 233K, 40 pages)
Peter Hicks
November 2008
Abstract: This paper discusses recent policy trends, the changing role of the various actors in the system, international comparisons and a range of other social policy topics. The paper does this by examining the author’s thoughts on trends and future directions as they were set out in a paper written in 1994. It then fast forwards to 2008 and examines what actually happened in the intervening years, pointing out areas where earlier forecasts were reasonably accurate and, where they were not, the reasons for this. The immediate purpose of the paper is to examine the reasons why social policy analysts need to look into the future, and to explore ways of managing the inevitably large risks associated with such future-looking exercises. The underlying purpose, however, is simply to introduce a range of important Canadian social policy topic to students and others who are interested in social policy, but without much previous background in the area.

Recommended reading!
- includes a senior federal government insider's view of the tumultuous period of the mid-1990s, notably the Social Security Review of 1994. As an insider myself during that decade (if only on the social program information side of the Department where author Peter Hicks was an Assistant Deputy Minister), I found this paper quite interesting and enlightening, notably in its retrospective look at social policy in Canada in the mid-1990s and thirteen years later, in 2008.

Source:
Queen's University School of Policy Studies

Also by the same author:

 Establishing an Effective Social Policy Agenda with Constrained Resources
by Peter Hicks (1995

Federal Court denies retroactive Quebec claim for $394 million
under the Canada Assistance Plan
June 6, 2008
From 1966-67 until 1996 when it was replaced by the Health and Social Transfer, the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) was the statutory framework for federal government contributions (50% of eligible expenditures) towards the cost of social assistance (welfare) and social services in the provinces and territories. From 1996 to 2000, the federal government settled all of its outstanding accounts with each jurisdiction, except for Quebec, which filed a court action for close to $400 million against the federal government. This amount represented the total of federal cost-sharing that Quebec officials felt they were entitled to receive under CAP but never did. CAP officials maintained all along that the program did not allow for cost-sharing of services and initiatives that were already receiving federal support under another program (such as Education) or that were universal in nature.

Upon review, the Court concluded (June 6, 2008) that Canada was not obliged under the terms of CAP to share the cost of the specified expenses.

* The services for which Quebec was seeking cost-sharing were:

1. Services provided to juvenile delinquents in Quebec between 1979 and 1984
--- a period during which juvenile delinquents were housed in the same institutions as children in care of the Quebec government

2. Social services provided in a school environment between 1973 and 1996
--- from the time Quebec transferred this budget item to the Ministère des Affaires sociales in 1973 until the end of CAP

3. Support services provided to people with disabilities living in a residential establishment
--- from the time this type of establishment appeared in the health and social services network until the end of CAP

T-2834-96
Decision IN THE MATTER OF QUEBEC vs. CANADA (French only)

Source:
Federal Court
The Federal Court's jurisdiction - its scope of authority to hear and decide issues - extends across the federal landscape, and it includes claims involving the Federal Crown.
[ About Federal Court ]

2006-2007 Departmental Performance Report:
Human Resources and Social Development Canada (HRSDC)

HTML version
PDF version
(3.3MB, 214 pages)
This document reports on the performance of Human Resources and Social Development Canada for the period from April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007. It reports on the Department's achievements related to the commitments set out in the 2006-2007 Report on Plans and Priorities. Section I provides a departmental overview, including a brief description of the socio-economic environment, and a summary of departmental performance. Section II includes detailed performance results information by strategic outcome. The financial tables and information concerning the specified purpose accounts are in Section III, and Section IV provides more details on programs supporting activities and the consolidated financial statements.

HRSDC: Details on Transfer Payment Programs
- includes (among others) :
* Canada Study Grant / Canada Access Grant * Canada Student Loans Program * Canada Education Savings Grant *
Canada Learning Bond * Social Development Partnerships Program * Guaranteed Income Supplement * Labour Market Agreements for Persons with Disabilities * New Horizons for Seniors Program * Old Age Security * Opportunities Fund for Persons with Disabilities * The Allowance * EarlyLearning and Child Care * Universal Child Care Benefit * National Homelessness Initiative * much more...

2006-2007 Departmental Performance Report:
Department of Finance Canada
HTML version
PDF version
(726K, 182 pages)
"...provides an overview of the Department's strategic outcome, a listing of its ongoing priorities, and the associated financial resources for the 2006-07 fiscal year."

Department of Finance Canada : Transfer Payment Programs
- the Department of Finance Canada departmental performance report is where you'll find information on (among other program areas) Fiscal Equalization (Part l, Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act), the Canada Health Transfer (Part V.1, Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act) and the Canada Social Transfer (Part V.1, Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements Act)

Related links:

Supplementary Estimates, 2007-2008 - HRSDC

Supplementary Estimates, 2007-2008 - Finance Canada

Other Reports of the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat

Source:
Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat


Federal [social spending] Caps and Cuts, 1972-1995

Transfers to Provinces and Territories [2006] - A CBC News Interactive Feature (requires Flash Player)
"Ottawa will give out $62 billion in payments to the provinces and territories for health, social and equalization in 2006. Here's a look at how the spoils are split."
- click "Continue" on the first page of this CBC interactive feature to see a map of Canada that you can click to see, for each Canadian jurisdiction, not only total federal transfer payments in 2006, but also the breakdown of those payments into two streams: the Canada Health Transfer (covering provincial/territorial health insurance programs) and the Canada Social Transfer (covering approved costs of provincial/territorial post-secondary education lumped in with social assistance [welfare] and social services).
Source:
CBC News
NOTES:
1. Compare the numbers in this CBC presentation with those of the federal Finance Department (in the box with the red border below). Can YOU tell how much the federal government is contributing towards the cost of provincial/territorial welfare programs?
I didn't think so. Accountability - easy to promise, tough to deliver.

2. TO THE NICE FOLKS AT FINANCE CANADA:
If you really plan on Bringing Accountability Back to Government, you could start by splitting the Canada Social Transfer into two distinct components: one for post-secondary education and one for social assistance and social services.

National Standards and Social Programs:
What the Federal Government can do
September 1997

Political and Social Affairs Division

Excellent 44-page reference document dealing with various aspects of the federal government's involvement in provincial-territorial social programs
Historical Background:
- includes a brief historical overview of social programs since WWI, with special focus on the programs and standards as of the early seventies and developments since then, as well as analysis of he EPF Arrangements of 1977, the Canada Health Act, the Canada Health and Social Transfer, fiscal trends and a comparative analysis of current standards with historical ones
The Jurisdictional Basis:
- incl. Education - Health - Income Support (Social Assistance, Social Insurance)
Intergovernmental Processes:
A. Major Mechanisms (Taxation: National Standards through the Back Door, The Federal Spending Power: National Standards C.O.D., Shared or Divided Policy Fields: National Standards by Gamesmanship, Charter Rights and Affirmations: National Standards through Constitutional Politics, and Intergovernmental Agreements: National Standards through Executive Federalism
B. Alternatives to Unilateralism: The Orchestration of Standards ( National Standards by Public Demand: The Power of Persuasion, National Standards and the "Information Age", National Standards by Interprovincial Consensus
Two Practical Considerations:
A. Political Will (Intergovernmental Pressures - Public Opinion)
B. Money (The Provincial Capacity Argument - The Effectiveness of Penalties - The "Political Loop" - A Concluding Note)
General Observations and Conclusions
Conclusion
Bibliography
Appendix I:
Federal [social spending] Caps and Cuts, 1972-1995
- a chronology of federal policy and program changes during that period, including the Canada Assistance Plan, Established Programs Funding (EPF), Equalization and much more...

NOTE: "Responding to the combined impact of fiscal, intergovernmental and other pressures, the federal government has, since at least the mid-seventies, been engaged in what has been widely portrayed as a retreat from the social policy role established during the immediate post-war period."
Appendix I presents milestones from 1972 to 1996.

- This section of the report alone is worth the download - but you have to download the entire report to read it.
It's a concise chronology of federal government caps and cuts in funding to provinces and territories under a number of social transfer programs, including Established Programs Funding, Equalization, the Canada Assistance Plan, the Canada Health Act, even includes projected cuts under the Canada Health and Social Transfer

Appendix II : Further Poll Results
Source:
Parliamentary Library

Paul Moist (CUPE President) tells the finance minister: quit starving the provinces
April 6, 2004
- outlines CUPE concerns about the federal/provincial equalization program as well as the Canada Health Transfer and the Canada Social Transfer.
- incl. sections on: Fiscal imbalance - the need to reform the Equalization formula in a fundamental way - the Canada Health Transfer - the Canada Social Transfer.
Source:
Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE)

Canada Post-Secondary Education Act (CAUT)
"The Canadian Association of University Teachers
has long recognized that the health of Canada's universities and colleges depends on the federal government playing a major role in funding post-secondary education. The problem has been finding a suitable vehicle for doing so. The CAUT position since 1985 has been to advocate passage of a Canada Post-Secondary Education Act, analogous to the Canadian Health Act."
Source:
Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT)

Notice of Ways and Means Motion to Implement Certain Provisions of the Budget Tabled in Parliament on February 28, 2000
(PDF file, 226K) 
- Incl. changes to Canada Health and Social Transfer, National Child Benefit, Canada Pension Plan, Income Tax, etc. 
News Release (summary of changes proposed) 
March 30, 2000

Federal Government Moves to Implement its $23.4-Billion Commitment for Health and Social Funding
[This link is now dead.]
Press Release 

Finance Canada 
October 04, 2000 
The $23.4-billion funding commitment will be provided as follows:
- An additional $21.1 billion over five years through increased funding for the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST) for health, post-secondary education and social assistance and services. Of this increase, $2.2 billion is provided to support early childhood development.

Comment:

Back to the Future?*
The June 9, 2000 edition of the Toronto Star includes a Canadian Press article about Paul Martin's appearance before the House Finance Committee on June 8. The article focuses largely on the Finance Minister's criticism of the Canadian Alliance Party's flat tax proposal. The federal Finance Department's site offers a link to the Minister's speech, but there is no mention of the flat tax in the speech; the Star references to the flat tax are rather to oral evidence provided in reply to questions from Committee members. You'll have to visit the website of the Standing Committee on Finance to see if they posted the proceedings of Mr. Martin's appearance. 

*An article in the June 9 Ottawa Citizen, written by staff reporters, also mentions the Finance Minister's critique of the Alliance flat tax proposal, but adds: "Mr. Martin also hinted that the federal government may break up the federal Canada Health and Social Transfer to the provinces into three separate packages to ensure, for example, that funds for health care are used for health care. The transfer system sends tax dollars to the provinces to pay for health, education and welfare programs. "
In the Fall of 1997, the National Council of Welfare released a report entitled Another Look at Welfare Reform - a look back at Canadian welfare reforms in the nineties. Here's an excerpt from the first of its 15 recommendations:  "The federal, provincial and territorial governments should agree to a new package of financial arrangements for social programs with the following four features: (...) four new "cash-only" deals to allow the federal government to defray the cost of medicare, post-secondary education, welfare and social services (...)"

Fiscal Imbalances and the Financing of National Programs (PDF file - 23K, 5 pages)
Joe Ruggeri, July 2002
"This paper explores the state of government finances in Canada. It focusses upon the growing fiscal imbalance, commonly known as vertical fiscal imbalance (VFI), between the federal and provincial/territorial levels of government."

Source : Caledon Institute of Social Policy

NOTE:
For more links to the debate on health care funding and the fiscal imbalance in Canada, go to the Canadian Social Research Links Medicare Debate Links page and the Canadian Social Research Links Council of the Federation page.


Recommended Reading on welfare reform in Quebec!

The Insertion Model or the Workfare Model?
The Transformation of Social Assistance within Quebec and Canada
September 2002
Sylvie Morel, Université Laval
"This research project involves a comparative analysis of changes in social assistance policies in Canada, particularly in Quebec"
Complete Report (PDF - 2.4MB, 190 pages)
"...we conclude, based on the cases of Quebec and Ontario, that Canada is currently evolving towards workfare, but encompasses several variants."
Source:

[Status of Women Canada]

Since the implementation of the CHST - and especially since the launch in 1998 of the National Child Benefit and related provincial/territorial investments and reinvestments - the field of welfare in Canada has been getting fuzzier. Most welfare programs are still readily identifiable (see the Canadian Social Research Links Key Welfare Links page), but as time goes on, jurisdictions are moving children's benefits out of welfare and into other income-tested programs (see the bottom of the Key Welfare Links page for more detail on that...) and merging, for reasons of efficiency, programs that were not cost-shared as social assistance under CAP.

Pity the poor social researcher who is attempting to track changes in the Canadian welfare system since the nineties.
[See Welfare Statistics on this page for detailed information on welfare caseloads and expenditures during this tumultuous period.]

Hard to dismantle a bad deal
May 5, 2004
Carole Goar
"
When governments bundle disparate bits and pieces into one big package — an omnibus bill, a multi-purpose program or a block funding plan — it's a good idea to be suspicious. There is usually a hidden snare. Canada's premiers learned that, nine years ago, when Paul Martin sold them a package deal that cost them dearly. It is still doing residual damage."
Source:
The Toronto Star

From the Canadian Council on Social Development:

The Federal Finance Minister responds to the
Canadian Council on Social Development
June 14, 2007
Earlier this year CCSD wrote to the Prime Minister and his Finance Minister about the importance of social development and the Canada Social Transfer (CST). The letter emphasized the need for increased, predictable and stable funding for social development as part of sound planning and effective investment in this country. The Finance Minister's response has been posted on the Policy Initiatives section of the CCSD website, along with other materials connected to work on the CST.

Letter from Finance Minister Jim Flaherty (PDF file - 30K, 3 pages)
May, 2007

Letter to the Prime Minister
April 3, 2007

NOTE: On the Policy Initiatives page of the CCSD website, you'll find related content, including:
* The Honourable Roy Romanow on the importance of the CST (October, 2004)
* Federation of Canadian Municipalities adopts a resolution on the CST (January 2005)
* What Kind of Canada? A Call for a National Debate on the Canada Social Transfer (April, 2004)
The New Social Architecture Series:
* The World We Have: Towards a New Social Architecture, by Katherine Scott, CCSD
* Postponed Adulthood: Dealing with the New Economic Inequality
* more...

What Kind of Canada?
A Call for a National Debate on the Canada Social Transfer
April 8, 2004
"The CCSD is aware that the Canada Social Transfer, in and of itself, will not resolve all Canada's social challenges. But it can, and should, be a key instrument in our collective hands to help us address at least some of these challenges. It is a useful starting point to get a healthy debate going. A four-point agenda to renew the Canada Social Transfer is proposed:
1. The Canada Social Transfer should be split into two parts: one for social programs and the other for post-secondary education.
2. Funding for the Canada Social Transfer should be restored to 1994-95 levels, and predictability and stability of funding should be guaranteed.
3. Common principles and objectives for the social transfer should be agreed to by all parties through a broad engagement with Canadians.
4. A pan-Canadian body should be established to measure outcomes, share innovation and foster citizen involvement."

The New Canada Social Transfer:
Impetus for a Renewed Era of Innovative Social Policy in Canada?
Notes for Remarks by The Honourable Roy J. Romanow, P.C.
National Arts Centre
Ottawa, Ontario
October 14, 2004
"Since April of this year, the CCSD has been working to draw more attention to issues surrounding Canada’s Social Transfer. We have been doing this with a multi-pronged approach that includes community meetings across the country, discussions with decision-makers and media interviews. On October 14, 2004, we continued this effort with a luncheon address by the Honourable Roy Romanow. The event took place at the National Arts Centre in Ottawa."

Women and the CHST: A Profile of Women Receiving Social Assistance in 1994 (PDF)
 March 1998
 Katherine Scott, Centre for International Statistics
 Canadian Council on Social Development
[
Funded by Status of Women Canada's Policy Research Fund]

Who will speak for Canada's children?
Winter 1995
David Ross

Copps recall foggy, but she's not totally wrong : she was likely thinking of
abandonment of national standards in the demise of the Canada Assistance Plan, not the Canada Health Act
October 29, 2004
By Vincent Calderhead and Martha Jackman
"The Sheila Copps-Paul Martin Canada Health Act dispute is intriguing. Copps says in a new book that Martin had intended in his 1995 budget to scrap the Canada Health Act as a sop to the provinces, which faced a 40 per cent cut to federal cash transfers. Martin denies this and those around him at the time back him up. (...) But what she might have been thinking about in the '95 budget was the Canada Assistance Plan. CAP was the federal legislation that, from the mid-'60s until its repeal in the 1995 budget, required provinces to ensure that their social assistance programs respected national standards."
Source:
The Toronto Star

2005 Public Accounts of Canada Tabled
September 29, 2005
"The Public Accounts of Canada for 2005, which include the Financial Statements of the Government of Canada were tabled in the House of Commons on September 29, 2005. The three volumes can be obtained in print from the Government of Canada Publications."
Click the link above to access the complete report in individual PDF files:
* Volume I - Summary Report and Financial Statements (PDF 2.0Mb)
* Volume II - Details of Expenses and Revenues (PDF 2.8Mb)
* Volume III - Additional Information and Analyses (PDF 3.7Mb)
Unpublished detailed information relating to Sections 4, 5 and 7 of Volume III of the Public Accounts of Canada 2005 are as follows:
* Section 4 (Professional and Special Services) (PDF 882kb)
* Section 5 (Acquisition of Land, Buildings and Works) (PDF 348kb)
* Section 7 (Transfer Payments) (PDF file - 2.1MB, 251 pages)
Section 7 includes detailed info about:

- $31 Billion in 2004-2005 in Payments under the Canada Health Transfer (CHT), the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST), the Health Reform Transfer (HRT) and other targeted federal transfers in support of health
- $14.5 Billion in 2004-2005 in Payments under the Canada Social Transfer (CST) in support of post-secondary education, social assistance and social services, including early childhood development and early learning and childcare
In 2004-2005, Finance Canada made payments of $45.7 billion through the Canada Health Transfer, the Canada Social Transfer, the Health Reform Transfer, and other targeted federal transfers in support of health and social services, including both cash and tax transfers. The amount of these cash and tax transfers in 2004-2005 is shown in the above table. In April 2004 the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST) was split into the Canada Health Transfer (CHT) and the Canada Social Transfer (CST). The CHT is a block-fund transfer to provinces and territories to provide financial support for the provision of health. The CST is a block-fund transfer to provinces and territories in support of post-secondary education, social assistance and social services, including early childhood development and early learning and childcare. Both transfers are a combination of tax point and cash transfers.
[Extract from Section 7, page 248]

Source:
Public Works and Government Services Canada

Child Poverty and the Canada Social Transfer: CCSD takes the Debate to the Prairies.
[October 6, 2005]

Source:
Canadian Council on Social Development

BACK (to the list of topics at the top of this page)

See also:

Welfare Reforms in Canada
Unofficial Social Union Links
Links to Union Sites
Non-governmental Organizations

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