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Canadian Social Research Newsletter
April 22, 2007

Welcome to the weekly Canadian Social Research Newsletter,
a listing of the new links added to the Canadian Social Research Links website in the past week.

The e-mail version of this week's issue of the newsletter is going out to 1794 subscribers.
Scroll to the bottom of this newsletter to see some notes and a disclaimer.


Canadian Content

1. Women in Canada: Work Chapter Updates (Statistics Canada) - April 20
2.  What's new on the Wellesley Institute Blog?
--- Policy Network: Essay Collection Released - April 20
--- Canadian Health Services Research Foundation Research Tools - April 19
--- Dying For A Home - April 16
--- Greater Toronto Urban Observatory - April 16
--- Debating housing and homelessness in LA - April 16

3. Alberta Budget 2007 - April 19
4. Yukon Budget 2007-2008 - April 19
5. Raise the Minimum Wage (David Schreck, - April 17
6. Canadian Consumer Tax Index, 2007 (The Fraser Institute) - April 16
7. What's New from Save the Children:

--- Rich countries not meeting 2005 G8 Summit Education Pledges - April 12
--- Child Poverty in America

8. What's New - from the Childcare Resource and Research Unit (University of Toronto) - April 20

International Content

9. Poverty Dispatch: U.S. media coverage of social issues and programs
10. Mollie Orshansky, creator of the American federal poverty line, dies at 91 (New York Times, Dec. 18/06) - April 17
The World Bank: An Online Atlas of the Millennium Development Goals

Have a great week!

Gilles Séguin
Canadian Social Research Links


1. Women in Canada: Work Chapter Updates - April 20
(Statistics Canada)

What's New from The Daily [Statistics Canada]:

Women in Canada: Work Chapter Updates
April 2007
By Marcia Almey
PDF version (213K, 23 pages)
Table of contents:
Women in the workplace
- More women employed
- Employment levels vary across the country
- Chances of employment increase with higher education
- Ages 25 to 54 prime working years for women
- Dramatic increases in employment among women with children
- Female lone parents less likely to be employed
- Many women work part-time
- Increasing numbers of women self-employed
- Still concentrated in traditional female occupations
- Unemployment lower among women

- click the above link to access any of the following tables:
[NOTE: I'm reproducing the entire list of tables because this is a good collection of historical employment rates;
the numbers presented in the tables are for all of Canada (vs by province/territory).]

Table 1 Employment, 1976 to 2006
Table 2 Percentage of the population aged 15 and over employed, by province, 1976 to 2006
Table 3 Percentage employed, by age and educational attainment, 2006
Table 4 Percentage employed, by age, 1976 to 2006
Table 5 Percentage of women with children employed, by age of youngest child, 1976 to 2006
Table 6 Employment of women with children, by family status and age of youngest child, 1976 to 2006
Table 7 Part-time employment, 1976 to 2006
Table 8 Percentage employed part-time, by age, 1976 to 2006
Table 9 Reasons for part-time work, by age, 2006
Table 10 Self-employment, 1976 to 2006
Table 11 Distribution of employment, by occupation, 1987, 1996 and 2006
Table 12 Unemployment, 1976 to 2006
Table 13 Unemployment rates, by age, 1976 to 2006
Table 14 Unemployment rates, by age and province, 2006
Table 15 Unemployed, by reason for leaving last job, 2006

Earlier editions of Women in Canada: Work Chapter Update
- annual editions back to 2000

- Go to the Federal Government Department Links (Agriculture to Finance) page:
- Go to the Canadian Government Sites about Women's Social Issues page:

2. What's new on the Wellesley Institute Blog?
--- Policy Network: Essay Collection Released - April 20
Canadian Health Services Research Foundation Research Tools - April 19
--- Dying For A Home - April 16
--- Greater Toronto Urban Observatory - April 16
--- Debating housing and homelessness in LA - April 16

What's new on the Wellesley Institute Blog?
[Click the above blog link to access all of the content below]

Policy Network: Essay Collection Released - April 20th, 2007
The Policy Network is a London-based European progressive think tank that does innovative research and thinking on pressing issues of social and economic inequality, social change and public policy reform. It has released a new collection of “essays by progressive academics and politicians in Europe on the challenge of immigration and social integration in Western societies.”

CHSRF Research Tools - April 19th, 2007
The Canadian Health Services Research Foundation has long published useful guides, reports and other resources on knowledge exchange and how to effectively get research to decision-makers. The have developed a valuable new database of tools “to help organizations create, share and use research.” They collect strategies, stories, frameworks, evaluation plans and other literature, categorized into resources that help find research, assess it, present research results most effectively, and promote and use research evidence in decision making.

Dying For A Home - April 16th, 2007
Dying For A Home is a dynamic new book by Toronto street nurse Cathy Crowe and ten experts on homelessness: Women and men who have lived on Toronto’s streets. You can read compelling stories and learn about homelessness from the street level up. Highly recommended.

Greater Toronto Urban Observatory - April 16th, 2007
The Greater Toronto Urban Observatory monitors and evaluates urban issues. Bookmark this site and visit regularly as it has great info on Toronto and the surrounding area. The GTUO is part of the global network of urban observatories under the umbrella of the United Nations' Centre for Human Settlements.

Debating housing and homelessness in LA - April 16th, 2007
The Los Angeles Times recently devoted five days to a debate on housing and homelessness between two policy experts. Prof. Peter Dreier is recognized as one of the leading housing experts in the world. His detailed analysis of the LA situation has a lot of practical observations about housing and homelessness issues in other metropolitan areas, including those in Canada. It’s good to see the mainstream media devote some serious space to a serious issue for many Americans (and, of course, for many Canadians too).

The Wellesley Institute

- Go to the Ontario Municipal and Non-Governmental Sites (D-W) page:

3. Alberta Budget 2007 - April 19

Budget 2007 addresses Alberta's price of prosperity

April 19, 2007
News Release
Budget highlights:
* 14th consecutive balanced budget; $2.2 billion estimated surplus
* $18.2 billion for infrastructure over three years, including $3 billion for health facilities and equipment and $1.3 billion for schools
* Phase-in of a new $1.4 billion Municipal Sustainability Initiative
* 10 per cent operating spending increase to address growth pressures and improve services
* Nearly $200 million in annual income tax savings for Albertans and $22 million for businesses in 2007
* Increased tax credits for charitable donations and post-secondary students; higher tobacco taxes
* A new in-year surplus allocation policy
* Program spending reviews and tight in-year operating spending limits

Alberta Budget 2007
- incl. links to all budget papers

What's in it for me?
- budget info affecting:
* All Albertans * Parents * Seniors * People with disabilities * Low-income Albertans
Selected budget measures:
* $16 million increase in child-care spending
* $20 million to support grants to the Registered Education Savings Plans for children born in 2005 and later, and students aged eight, 11 and 14.
* increased funding to cover tuition costs
* Increased funding for seniors will help to cover higher dental costs and assist seniors with remaining in their home in their community.
* Increased funding for seniors lodges including funding for more units and for lodge operators to provide supports to clients with higher needs.
* Ongoing funding will continue to deliver the Alberta Seniors Benefit program for low-income seniors, and provides all seniors care coverage, education property tax assistance and Aids to Daily Living support.
* Assured Income for the Severely Handicapped (AISH) benefits increased by $50/month, bringing the total to $1050 per month. This is the third increase in as many years.
* Program funding for Persons with Developmental Disabilities (PDD) increases 3.5 per cent to $526 million (...). Funding for PDD has increased by 90 per cent since 1999 while caseloads have grown by 20 per cent.
* A 10-year cross-ministry plan is being implemented to reduce the incidence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.
* Funding has increased for Family Support for Children with Disabilities to address increased demand and improve services in rural areas.
* More support for children with special needs in school.
* A five per cent increase in core income support benefits for people on income support who are considered not able to work or who are temporarily unable to work and to all learners.
* Budget 2007 also continues key programs such as: child health benefits, seniors’ benefits and employment and training programs that assist people in need.

Google Search Results Links - always current results!
Using the following search terms (without the quote marks):
"Alberta provincial budget 2007, analysis"
Web search results page
News search results page
Blog Search Results page

- Go to the Alberta Links page:
- Go to the Canadian Government Budgets Links page:

4. Yukon Territorial Budget 2007-2008 - April 19

Yukon 2007-2008 Budget
April 19, 2007
- incl. links to all budget papers

2007-2008 Budget Highlights (PDF file - 48K, 3 pages)

Welfare recipients get no boost from Yukon budget
April 20, 2007
Yukon welfare recipients and anti-poverty activists were disappointed to find no change in social assistance rates in the territory's latest budget.
Premier Dennis Fentie delivered a projected $862-million budget on Thursday, the largest in the territory's history. Many who attended the Yukon Anti-Poverty Coalition's monthly meeting late Thursday had been hoping the big budget would include an increase in monthly social assistance payments. Coalition co-chair Ross Findlater said he was "quite disappointed" with the news.

Google Search Results Links - always current results!
Using the following search terms (without the quote marks):
"Yukon budget 2007"
Web search results page
News search results page
Blog Search Results page

- Go to the Yukon Links page:
- Go to the Canadian Government Budgets Links page:

5. Raise the Minimum Wage - April 17
(David Schreck,

Raise the Minimum Wage
April 17, 2007
Some things are as reliable as Pavlov's dog. The NDP issued a news release calling for the minimum wage to be increased to $10 an hour and the salivating dogs, in this case the BC Chamber of Commerce and Retail BC, promptly countered with criticism of the idea. Retail BC argued that most businesses already pay more than the minimum wage. By contrast, the Chamber's release argued that an increase would impose an increase in "labour costs of over $450 million" on small businesses.

David Schreck,

Related Links from the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives:

Bringing Minimum Wages Above the Poverty Line (PDF file - 877K, 56 pages)
March 2007
By Stuart Murray and Hugh Mackenzie
Summary (PDF file - 248K, 6 pages)

Raising the Minimum Wage in Ontario (PDF file - 167K, 3 pages)
February 2007
By Hugh Mackenzie
Complete report
"(...) Ontario’s minimum wage used to be more in line with the province’s industrial wage. In fact, the minimum wage in Ontario was as high as $9.97 in 1976 (adjusted to 2007 dollars, based on the Toronto area consumer price index)."

Minimum Wage Fact Sheets (PDF file - 958K, 8 pages)

See also:

[U.S.] Minimum Wage History, 1938-2008- from Oregon State University
- incl. four charts + some very interesting links at the bottom of the page to many useful resources, e.g., wealth and poverty links

- Go to the Minimum Wage /Living Wage Links page:

6. Canadian Consumer Tax Index, 2007 - April 16
(The Fraser Institute)

Average Canadian family spending more money
on taxes than on food, clothing and household combined
News Release
April 16, 2007
Vancouver, BC - The average Canadian family spends more money on taxes than on necessities of life such as food, clothing, and housing, according to a study from The Fraser Institute, an independent research organization with offices across Canada. The Canadian Consumer Tax Index, 2007, shows that even though the income of the average Canadian family has increased significantly since 1961, their total tax bill has increased at a much higher rate. In 1961, the average Canadian family earned an income of $5,000 and paid $1,675 in total taxes -- 33.5 per cent of its income. In 2006, the average Canadian family earned an income of $63,001 and paid total taxes equaling $28,311 -- 44.9 per cent of its income.

Canadian Consumer Tax Index, 2007
"The Canadian Tax system is complex and there is no single number that can give us a complete idea of who pays how much. That said, The Fraser Institute annually calculates the most comprehensive and easily understood indicator of the overall tax bill of the average Canadian family: Tax Freedom Day. This Alert examines what has happened to the tax bill of the average Canadian family over the past 45 years. To determine the changes, an index of the tax bill of the average Canada family, the Canadian Consumer Tax Index, is constructed for the period 1961-2006."

The Fraser Institute


The Fraser Institute updates this index annually, based on its Tax Freedom Day information. There's no analysis of this year's index available online yet because it was just released on April 16, but Neil Brooks, a professor at York's Osgoode Hall Law School in Toronto who teaches tax law and policy, looked at last year's numbers and came to a very different conclusion.

"Brooks takes on the Fraser Institute's accounting in a paper for the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA), a think-tank that plows the other side of the political field.(...) As a portion of our total economy, taxes consume only slightly more today than they did in 1975, according to statistics kept by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development. So, revolt if you want, but remember, in government as in all consumer goods, there is a large element of getting what you pay for."
Y-File - (York University's Daily Bulletin)
April 21, 2006

In the words of Neil Brooks:

Taxes are good for a nation’s health and well-being—study
Press Release
December 6, 2006

The Social Benefits and Economic Costs of Taxation:
A Comparison of High- and Low-Tax Countries
- PDF file - 512K, 55 pages
By Neil Brooks and Thaddeus Hwong
December 6, 2006

Taxes and human purpose
By Neil Brooks
December 9, 2005

And I agree wholeheartedly.
You do get the kind of country you pay for.
Remember the old car oil filter commercial: "You can pay me now, or you can pay me later."
It's later now.

- Go to the Social Research Organizations (II) in Canada page:

7. What's New from Save the Children:
--- Rich countries not meeting 2005 G8 Summit Education Pledges - April 12
--- Child Poverty in America

Half of the world's out-of-school population live in conflict affected fragile states
Children in Areas of Conflict Get Little Help for Education, New Report Shows
Only 2 of 22 Rich Countries Have Met 2005 G8 Summit Pledges
News Release
April 12, 2007
The world's richest countries are failing to help millions of children in conflict-affected nations get an education, a new Save the Children report reveals today, ahead of a series of crucial world donor meetings. For example, in the Sudanese region of Darfur, over 50 percent of children are out of school, many forced from their homes due to violence, but almost no funding has been provided specifically to educate these children.

Complete report:

Last in Line, Last in School:
How donors are failing children
in conflict-affected fragile states
(PDF file - 425k, 64 pages)

International Save the Children Alliance
Save the Children is the world’s largest independent organisation for children, making a difference to children’s lives in over 110 countries. From emergency relief to long-term development, Save the Children helps children to achieve a happy, healthy and secure childhood. Save the Children listens to children, involves children and ensures their views are taken into account. Save the Children secures and protects children’s rights – to food, shelter, health care, education and freedom from violence, abuse and exploitation.
NOTE: On the home page of the international site, you'll find links to all 27 Save the Children Alliance country websites, including:
Australia - Canada ( Publications ) - Denmark - Dominican - Republic - Egypt - Fiji - Finland - Germany - Guatemala - Honduras - Iceland - Italy - Japan - Jordan - Korea - Lithuania - Mexico - Netherlands - New Zealand - Norway - Romania - Spain - Swaziland - Sweden - Switzerland - United Kingdom - United States (see Child Poverty in America)

- Go to the International Children, Families and Youth Links page:

8. What's New - from the Childcare Resource and Research Unit (University of Toronto) - April 20

What's New
- from the Childcare Resource and Research Unit (CRRU) - University of Toronto

The Childcare Resource and Research Unit offers a free weekly "e-mail news notifier" service.
Here's the content of the latest issue of this bulletin.
For more information about this service,
including instructions for (un)subscribing, see:


What's New


Report from Bernard van Leer “considers ways to tackle early drop-out and under-achievement at school through improving transitions from both home and early childhood programmes.”

Newsletter from the Child Care Human Resources Sector Council focuses on issues of inclusion and the workforce.


Press release from the government of Manitoba.

Report by Dan Bellm and Marcy Whitebook “documents how U.S. policy on child care and early education led to a decline in wages and education among staff in early childhood programs.”

Child care in the news

Bursaries offered to child care staff [CA-AB]
Edmonton Journal, 17 Apr 07

A solution to our mess isn't rocket science! [CA]
Whitehorse Daily Star, 16 Apr 07

Lack of child care spaces hurts would-be migrants [CA-BC]
Prince Rupert Daily News, 16 Apr 07

Child care report urges expansion of parental benefits [CA]
Calgary Herald, 14 Apr 07

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
This message was forwarded through the Childcare Resource
and Research Unit e-mail news notifier. For information on the
CRRU e-mail notifier, including instructions for (un)subscribing,

The Childcare Resource and Research Unit
University of Toronto, Canada
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Related Links:

Links to child care sites in Canada and elsewhere
CRRU Publications
- briefing notes, factsheets, occasional papers and other publications
ISSUE files - theme pages, each filled with contextual information and links to further info

Link to the CRRU home page:
Childcare Resource and Research Unit (CRRU) - University of Toronto

- Go to the Non-Governmental Early Learning and Child Care Links page:

9. Poverty Dispatch:
U.S. media coverage of social issues and programs

Poverty Dispatch - U.S.
- links to news items from the American press about poverty, welfare reform, child welfare, education, health, hunger, Medicare and Medicaid, etc.
NOTE: this is a link to the current issue --- its content changes twice a week.

Past Poverty Dispatches
- links to two dispatches a week back to June 1 (2006) when the Dispatch acquired its own web page and archive.

Poverty Dispatch Digest Archive - weekly digest of dispatches from August 2005 to May 2006
For a few years prior to the creation of this new web page for the Dispatch, I was compiling a weekly digest of the e-mails and redistributing the digest to my mailing list with IRP's permission.
This is my own archive of weekly issues of the digest back to August 2005, and most of them have 50+ links per issue. I'll be deleting this archive from my site gradually, as the links to older articles expire.

Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP)
[ University of Wisconsin-Madison ]

- Go to the Links to American Government Social Research page:
- Go to the Links to American Non-Governmental Social Research (A-J) page:
- Go to the Links to American Non-Governmental Social Research (M-Z) page:

10. Mollie Orshansky, creator of the American federal poverty line, dies at 91 (December 18/06)
(New York Times - April 17)

Mollie Orshansky, Statistician, Dies at 91

April 17, 2007
"Mollie Orshansky, a statistician and economist with the U.S. Social Security Administration who in the 1960s developed the federal poverty line, a measurement that shaped decades of social policy and welfare programs, died Dec. 18 at her home in Manhattan, a family member said yesterday. (...) She used the economy food plan — the cheapest of four “nutritionally adequate” food plans developed by the Department of Agriculture — and multiplied the dollar costs by roughly three to come up with a minimum cost-of-living estimate. (...) Miss Orshansky devised more than 120 poverty thresholds, adjusting her calculations for family size and composition and rural-urban differences. She published her research in a seminal 1965 article in The Social Security Bulletin.

NOTE: Mollie Orshansky intended her work on American poverty thresholds to be used "as a research tool, not an instrument of policy or a criterion for determining eligibility for anti-poverty programs”. Similarly, in Canada, the Chief Statistician (the boss at Statistics Canada) has always maintained that StatCan's Low Income Cutoffs ("LICOs") don't constitute a viable measure of poverty in Canada. Nonetheless, the advocacy and social justice communities use LICOs as a measure of poverty, a yardstick against which to see how well government social programs are doing. The big difference in the U.S. of A. is that the poverty line numbers are actually used to establish eligibility for a number of social programs.

Related links:

* Mollie Orshansky Biographical notes - from Social Security Online
* Mollie Orshansky - from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
* Annual Update of the Health and Human Services Poverty Guidelines - 2007
(January 24, 2007)
* The Development and History of the U.S. Poverty Thresholds — A Brief Overview
* What programs use the poverty guidelines?

* Further Resources on Poverty Measurement, Poverty Lines, and Their History
* U.S. Poverty Guidelines, Research and Measurement
* How the Census Bureau Measures Poverty

Of special interest to historians
with fast Internet connections:

Selected Articles and Papers by Mollie Orshansky
about the Poverty Thresholds and the Poverty Population

- this page includes citations for a number of Mollie Orshanski’s important articles AND a link to an on-line version of Technical Paper I (PDF file - 22MB, 364 pages), which contains the full text of a number of the articles that you'll find in the citations.
[HINT: check the Enhanced Table of Contents for Technical Paper I (PDF file - 15K, 2 pages), a small file that opens quickly, to see if you really really want to download the monster technical paper. Even with an office or cable connection, the complete technical paper is humongous. But if you want some historical perspective on the measurement of poverty in the U.S, the download is well worth the wait - it contains two dozen articles (many by Mollie herself) and many statistical tables on poverty in America in the 1960s.
Recommended reading! (but murder on a dialup connection...)


The Measure of Poverty:
A Report to Congress as Mandated by
The Education Amendments of 1974
(PDF file - 7.3MB, 179 pages)
April 1976

On the Canadian side, from Statistics Canada:

Low-income Cutoffs for 2005 and Low-income Measures for 2004 (PDF file - 446K, 37 pages)
April 2006

"On poverty and low income" - by Ivan Fellegi (1997)
The Chief Statistician of Canada explains why his agency's low income cut-offs should not be used as the "official" poverty line for Canada.

Low Income Measurement in Canada (PDF file - 220K, 20 pages)
December 2004

- Go to the Poverty Measures - Canadian Resources page:
- Go to the Poverty Measures - International Resources page:

11. The World Bank: An Online Atlas of the Millennium Development Goals

The World Bank: An Online Atlas of the Millennium Development Goals

The World Bank established a set of Millennium Development Goals as both a challenge to poor countries to demonstrate “good governance” and to wealthy nations as a spur that would hopefully encourage them to support economic and social development. Recently, the World Bank created this visually engaging and sophisticated interactive atlas to track those eight goals, which include the promotion of gender equality, combating disease, and reducing child mortality. Visitors can click on any of these eight goals and they will be able to view maps of the world that document the progress that has been made in each nation. Clicking on each nation individually brings up clear and easy-to-read tables that chart additional changes within each separate goal. Visitors can export the data for their own use, and they can also resize the map to demonstrate the changes made over the past few years.

From The Scout Report, Copyright Internet Scout Project 1994-2007.

- Go to the United Nations Links page:

Also from the latest issue of The Scout Report:

HGTV (Home and Garden Television):
Gardening, Hardscaping, and Landscaping,1784,HGTV_3546,00.html
Dear Scout Report reader, we would like to ask you an important question: How does your garden grow? It is hoped that the answer is a positive one, but if not (or even if it is), this informative website about gardening and landscaping offered by HGTV may come in handy. The site brings together materials featured on some of their television programs, and a number of web-only features as well. Visitors may want to start by take a look over their “Most Popular” links, which include short essays (accompanied by illustrations and photographs) on topics like “Landscape Makeover 101”, “Plant-Buying Boo-boos”, and “Water Features for Any Budget”. Users looking for specific materials will want to click on over to the left-hand side of the homepage, where they will find an alphabetical listing of gardening-related topics. Finally, the site also includes video clips from some of HGTV’s gardening and landscaping programs
[Not exactly social policy, but it's in the spirit of the season, eh --- Gilles]
See also:
The Best of HGTV (incl. more links to gardening and much, much more from Home and Garden Television)

Disclaimer/Privacy Statement

Both Canadian Social Research Links (the site) and this Canadian Social Research Newsletter belong solely to me, Gilles Séguin.

I am solely accountable for the choice of links presented therein and for the occasional editorial comment - it's my time, my home computer, my experience, my biases, my Rogers Internet account and my web hosting service.

I administer the mailing list and distribute the weekly newsletter using software on the web server of the Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE).
Thanks, CUPE!

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Privacy Policy:
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I promise not share any information on this list, nor to send you any junk mail.

Links presented in the Canadian Social Research
Newsletter point to different views about social policy and social programs.
There are some that I don't agree with, so don't get on my case, eh...

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Please feel free to distribute this newsletter as widely as you wish, but please remember to mention Canadian Social Research Links when you do.




Think you're smart, eh?
(answers at the bottom of this page - no peeking.)

Q1. A murderer is condemned to death. He has to choose between three rooms: The first is full of raging fires, the second is full of assassins with loaded guns, and the third is full of lions that haven't eaten in 3 years. Which room is safest for him?

Q2. A woman shoots her husband. Then she holds him under water for over 5 minutes. Finally, she hangs him. But 5 minutes later they both go out together and enjoy a wonderful dinner together. How can this be?

Q3. A magician was boasting one day at how long he could hold his breath under water. His record was 6 minutes. A kid that was listening said, "that's nothing, I can stay under water for 10 minutes using no type of equipment or air pockets!" The magician told the kid if he could do that, he'd give him $10,000. The kid did it and won the money. Can you figure out how?

Q4. There are two plastic jugs filled with water. How could you put all of this water into a barrel, without using the jugs or any dividers, and still tell which water came from which jug?

Q5. What is black when you buy it, red when you use it, and grey when you throw it away?

Q6. Can you name three consecutive days without using the words Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, or Sunday?

Q7. This is an unusual paragraph. I'm curious how quickly you can find out what is so unusual about it? It looks so plain you would think nothing was wrong with it! In fact, nothing is wrong with it! It is unusual though. Study it, and think about it, but you still may not find anything odd. But if you work at it a bit, you might find out! Try to do so without any coaching!

Q8. You are participating in a race. You overtake the second person. What position are you in?

Q9. If you overtake the last person, then you are...?

Q10. (in your head!) Take 1000 and add 40 to it. Now add another 1000. Now add 30. Add another 1000. Now add 20. Now add another 1000. Now add 10. What is the total?

Q11. Mary's father has five daughters: 1. Nana, 2. Nene, 3. Nini, 4. Nono. What is the name of the fifth daughter?

Now how many could you answer?
.Keep scrolling down for the answers...

A1. The third. Lions that haven't eaten in three years are dead.

A2. The woman was a photographer. She shot a picture of her husband, developed it, and hung it up to dry.

A3. The kid filled a glass of water and held it over his head for 10 minutes.

A4. Colour and Freeze them first. Take them out of the jugs and put the ice in the barrel. You will be able to tell which water came from which jug.

A5. The answer is Charcoal. In Homer Simpson's words: hmmmm... Barbecue.

A6. Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow.

A7. The letter "e", which is the most common letter in the English language, does not appear once in the long paragraph

A8. If you answer that you are first, then you are absolutely wrong! If you overtake the second person and you take his place, you are second!

A9. If you answered that you are second to last, then you are wrong again. Tell me, how can you overtake the LAST person?!

A10. Did you get 5000? The correct answer is actually 4100. Don't believe it? Check with your calculator!

A11. Nunu? NO! Of course not. The fifth daughter is Mary. Read the question again.