Canadian Social Research Links

Key Provincial and Territorial
Government Welfare Links

Sites de recherche sociale au Canada

- L'aide sociale -
Liens importants des
gouvernements provinciaux et territoriaux

Links checked August 30, 2014
Liens vérifiés le 30 août 2014

[ Go to Canadian Social Research Links Home Page ]


"My friends, love is better than anger. Hope is better than fear. Optimism is better than despair.
So let us be loving, hopeful and optimistic. And we’ll change the world."

[Jack Layton, R.I.P
]



Jump directly to a specific section of this page:

[The links in this yellow box will take you further down on the page you're now reading.]

Provinces and territories:

Newfoundland and Labrador
Prince Edward Island

Nova Scotia
New Brunswick

Québec

Ontario

Manitoba
Saskatchewan
Alberta
British Columbia

Yukon
Northwest Territories
Nunavut

----------------

Income Assistance for members
of First Nations living on a reserve

----------------

Social/Income Assistance for immigrants
Different rules apply depending on whether someone wishes to come to Canada as an immigrant (i.e., permanently), a visitor, a worker (temporarily), a student or a refugee.

----------------

General/national welfare resources:
(also lower down on the page you're now reading)

* Welfare statistics
* Welfare rates (benefit levels)
* Welfare expenditures
* Welfare and the Canada Child Tax Benefit

* Welfare leavers - what happens to them?
* Legislation
* Historical welfare program information and statistics
* Miscellaneous welfare research resources

----------------

NOTE: for the latest budget info, go to the Canadian Government Budgets Links page: http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/budgets.htm

 


Related Canadian Social Research Links pages:

* Anti-Poverty Strategies and Campaigns:
--- Provincial and territorial
--- Ontario
(separate page due to large filesize)
--- National and international

* Guaranteed Annual Income

B.S. ALERT:

Working Joe vs Welfare Joe
If you've recently received a forwarded email message comparing the financial situation of a construction worker making $52K and Welfare Joe the Casino regular and bon-vivant, read this. [This link takes you to a separate page of the Canadian Social Research Links website.]


FACTOID:
The page that you're presently reading is viewed over 4,000 times a month.


For each Canadian province and territory, you'll find links to the following info on this page:

Department responsible for welfare
- Link to the government department or ministry responsible for the administration of the welfare program.

Name of the welfare program
- Whatever a jurisdiction chooses to call its financial assistance program of last resort - social assistance, income support, income assistance and welfare assistance are the most common - "welfare" refers to government programs of last resort that provide financial assistance on the basis of a test that takes into account the applicant household's financial resources and needs (both notions as defined in provincial/territorial welfare legislation); entitlement is based on the budget deficit - needs minus non-exempted financial resources. (See the Welfare Reforms in Canada page of this site for more information about the needs test under "Welfare in Canada Today").

Legislation
- Legislation
is subject to change, so be sure to note the latest revision of any online legislation you use. Consolidations of statutes and regulations that are posted online usually include the date of the last update or amendment. Where there are several regulations under a particular jurisdiction's welfare statute, you'll find a link to each of those regs (e.g., NS, Alberta) in this page, but the regulation containing the general welfare provisions is highlighted. The other regs that appear under any given welfare statute deal with special topics like appeals, training, recovery of overpayments and a number of other areas. In addition to statutes and regs, you'll find a link to the source of legislation for each jurisdiction, so you can poke around for yourself...
- see the special note on welfare legislation at the bottom of this page for complementary sources of legislation and regs.

Policy Manual
- This is where you'll find detailed information about the nuts and bolts of welfare in Canada. Initial and continuing eligibility conditions, benefits, administrative matters, interactions between welfare and other government programs, including many programs offered under the federal-provincial-territorial National Child Benefit initiative. If you wish to explore *only* welfare policy manuals, go to the Provincial/Territorial Welfare Policy Manuals page of this site: http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/manuals.htm

Welfare statistics
- see the special note on Canadian welfare stats at the bottom of this page (welfare dependency, costs, etc.)
- for stats on poverty, income, health, etc., go to the Social Statistics Links page: http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/stats.htm

Welfare rates (benefit levels)
- see the special note on Canadian welfare rates at the bottom of this page.
- includes links to Welfare Incomes reports produced by the National Council of Welfare and, more recently, the Caledon Institute of Social Policy.

Related links
- recent (and some historical) welfare reform information and other relevant links, plus a link to a separate Canadian Social Research Links page (of links) for each province and territory.

-------------------------------------------------------

Google.ca Search Results pages
- for each jurisdiction, you'll find links to search results for "welfare" (excluding child welfare or animal welfare)
NOTES:
1. These links always take you to the most current search results, as if you'd just done a Google.ca search yourself.
2. Search results include Web search, News search and Blog search.
3. Because there is no Canada section as such on this page, and because there's still a modicum of interest in welfare-related issues at the national level, here are links to the same searches at the Canada-wide level:

Latest search results on Google.ca for
"welfare, Canada"
- Web search results
- News search results
- Blog search results

-------------------------------------------------------


Historical welfare information

How did welfare work in Canada before the implementation of the Canada Health and Social Transfer in 1996?
See Historical welfare program information and statistics (further down on this page.)

-------------------------------------------------------

Have Canadian Welfare Reforms "Succeeded"?
[This link takes you further down the page you're now reading]
HINT:
"YES!", says the Right.
"NO!", says the Left.



A special message to federal,
provincial and territorial government officials
involved in comparative welfare research:

Canadian Social Research Links is a one-person show. I don't have a crystal ball, nor am I inclined to pore through stacks of Royal Gazettes and Statutes in order to keep the legislative links on this site up to date. If you appreciate the collection of key welfare links in other jurisdictions, please consider reciprocating by checking the links below for your jurisdiction and notifying me if something needs to be added, deleted or updated. My email address [ gilseg@rogers.com ] appears at the bottom of most pages of this website.

On behalf of other Canadian Social Research Links visitors: Thanks!

Gilles




Federal Poverty Reduction Plan:
Working in Partnership Towards Reducing Poverty in Canada
(PDF - 1.7MB, 316 pages)
November 17, 2010
Seventh Report of the House of Commons
Standing Committee on Human Resources,
Skills and Social Development and the Status of Persons with Disabilities
Chair: Candice Hoeppner, MP
Source:

House of Commons Standing Committee on Human Resources, Skills and
Social Development and the Status of Persons with Disabilities ("HUMA")

Related Canadian Social Research Links pages:

Anti-Poverty Strategies and Campaigns:
* Provincial and territorial
* National and international



WELFARE IN CANADA 101

If you're not sure how welfare works in Canada, I highly recommend the following resource:

Social Assistance in Canada: An Overview * (7 pages)
*This is the second chapter of:

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2008
July 2011
Produced by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Directors of Income Support
This report includes a description of, and statistics related to, the welfare system in each province and territory, information about federal-provincial-territorial jurisdictional and funding issues, a bit of historical info on the Canada Assistance Plan and the Canada Health and Social Transfer, etc.

Source:
[ Human Resources and Skills Development Canada ]


Newfoundland and Labrador

Department responsible for welfare
Advanced Education and Skills

Name of the welfare program
Income Support

Legislation
Income and Employment Support Act
- Income and Employment Support Regulations
Source:
Statutes and Regulations
(House of Assembly)

Policy Manual
Income and Employment Support Policy Manual
- Income Support (home page of the Income Support Program, includes links to some info about the Income Support (Social Assistance) program

Welfare statistics
Income Support Caseload Statistics
Income Support Benefits (individuals/families), 2007 to 2012
Income Support Cases and Recipients, 1992 to date (PDF - 13K, 1 page)
Historical Statistics of Newfoundland and Labrador (PDF - 1.1MB, 13 pages) - October 1970 - incl. social assistance stats from 1951-1969 (under "Health and Welfare")
Number of People on Welfare, March 1995 to March 2005 (PDF file - 133K, 1 page)
Sources:
* Newfoundland and Labrador Statistics Agency
* NL Community Accounts
* Department of Advanced Education and Skills
* National Council of Welfare

Welfare rates (benefits)
Monthly rates (from Program Overview)
- incl.
Family and Individual Benefit Rates + shelter
See Regulations section 13 foll.
NOTE : the former "Newfoundland and Labrador Family Benefit" no longer appears on the Dept. website; instead, the income support rates page refers to a Family and Individual Benefit (to assist with expenses such as food, clothing, personal care, household maintenance and utilities) and a Shelter benefit
. Assistance for children in welfare households is provided through the combined Newfoundland and Labrador Child Benefit and the Canada Child Tax Benefit paid by the federal government.

Latest search results on Google.ca for
"welfare, Newfoundland"

- Web search results
- News search results
- Blog search results

Related Links
* Department of Advanced Education and Skills Annual Report 2011 - 2012 (PDF - 1.3MB, 52 pages)
* Poverty Reduction Strategy
* Programs and Services for Individuals and Families Guidebook - Revised August 2010
*
Province of Newfoundland and Labrador Launches Poverty Reduction Consultations (October 16/08)
* 2008 NL Consultations - Home page
* Reducing Poverty: An Action Plan for Newfoundland and Labrador (PDF) 2006
* Reducing Poverty in Newfoundland and Labrador : Working Towards a Solution (June 2005, PDF - 1.5MB, 44 pages)
* Poverty Reduction Strategies in Quebec and in Newfoundland and Labrador (Oct/07) (from Parliamentary Research Library)
* 2005-06 Annual Report - Dept. of Human Resources, Labour & Employment (PDF - 1.3MB, 35 pages)
* More Human Resources, Labour and Employment Publications

- Go to the Canadian Social Research Links Newfoundland and Labrador page -
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/nfbkmrk.htm

Prince Edward Island

Department responsible for welfare
Community Services and Seniors

Name of the welfare program
Social Assistance
(formerly Welfare Assistance)

Legislation
Social Assistance Act (PDF file - 488K, 10 pages)
- General Regulations (PDF file - 552K, 25 pages)
Source:
Statutes and Regulations of Prince Edward Island

Policy Manual
Social Assistance Policy Manual

Welfare statistics
Community Services and Seniors Annual Report
for the Fiscal Year April 2011 to March 2012
(PDF - 3.9MB, 31 pages) ===> see page 17 for caseload and beneficiary stats for 2009-2010 to 2011-2012
Number of People on Welfare,
March 1995 to March 2005
(PDF file - 133K, 1 page)
Source: National Council of Welfare

Welfare rates (benefits)
See sections 5 & 6 of the
Social Assistance Policy Manual

(Basic and Special Need Items)

Latest search results on Google.ca for
"welfare, -child, -animal, Prince Edward Island"
- Web search results
- News search results
- Blog search results

Related Links
* Preventing and Reducing Poverty in PEI - A strategy for engagement - July 2011
* 2007-2008 Social Services and Seniors Annual Report (PDF - 967K, 37 pages)
Published May 12, 2009
[ earlier annual reports and other departmental publications ]

- Go to the Canadian Social Research Links Prince Edward Island page -
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/pebkmrk.htm
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Nova Scotia

Department responsible for welfare
Community Services

Name of the welfare program
Employment Support and Income Assistance

Legislation
Employment Support and Income Assistance Act

- Employment Support and Income Assistance Regulations ===> main welfare regulations
- Assistance Appeal Regulations

Source:
- Consolidated Public Statutes of Nova Scotia
- Nova Scotia Regulations

Policy Manual
Employment Support and Income Assistance Policy
- incl. links to the latest version of the manual and to revision logs

Welfare Rights Guide : A Guide to Income Assistance in Nova Scotia (PDF - 908K, 58 pages) - July 2009 (by Dalhousie Legal Aid Service)

Welfare statistics
Number of People on Welfare, March 1995 to March 2005 (PDF file - 133K, 1 page)
Source: National Council of Welfare

Welfare rates (benefits)
Basic Income Assistance Rates
Or
Appendix "A" of the Regulations

Latest search results on Google.ca for
"welfare, -child, -animal, Nova Scotia"

- Web search results
- News search results
- Blog search results

Related links
* Nova Scotia Department of Community Services Recent reports:
---
Dept of Community Services Statement of Mandate 2012-2013 (PDF - 620K, 16 pages)
--- Dept of Community Services Annual Accountability Report Fiscal Year 2011-2012 (PDF - 1.4MB, 26 pages)
--- Dept of Community Services Statement of Mandate 2011-2012 (PDF - 312K, 18 pages)

* The Cost of Poverty in Nova Scotia (PDF - 760K, 12 pages)
October 2010 (Source: CCPA Nova Scotia Office )
* Fast Facts: The Cost of Poverty in Nova Scotia (PDF - 400K, 2 pages) October 2010 (also from CCPA)
* Nova Scotia Poverty Reduction Strategy - April 2009
* Nova Scotia’s Poverty Reduction Strategy: Preventing Poverty, Promoting Prosperity (PDF - 1.4MB, 45 pages) - April 2009
* Report of the Nova Scotia Poverty Reduction Working Group (PDF - 129K, 41 pages) - June 26, 2008
* Government Seeks Public Input on Poverty Strategy - March 5, 2008
* Poverty Backgrounder (2008) - Research and statistics about poverty in Nova Scotia
*
Department of Community Services Annual Accountability Report 2007-2008 (PDF - 229K, 40 pages)
Reporting of outcomes against Community Services’ business plan information for the fiscal year 2007-2008.
* Department of Community Services Business Plan 2007 - 2008 (PDF - 262K, 25 pages)
Source: Department of Community Services Publications, Policies & Reports<===contains links to dozens of earlier reports, plans, strategies, etc.
* Report to the Community 2007 (PDF file - 415K, 2 pages) - May 18/07
* IMPACT! The effect of Nova Scotia's new income assistance system on people who need assistance (PDF file - 155K, 23 pages) November 2003 (from the Nova Scotia Association of Social Workers )

- Go to the Canadian Social Research Links Nova Scotia page -
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/nsbkmrk.htm


New Brunswick

Department responsible for welfare
Social Development

Name of the welfare program
Social Assistance

Legislation
Family Income Security Act

- Family Income Security Regulation

Source:
NB Acts and Regulations

Policy Manual
New Brunswick Welfare Policy Manual + link to legislation 

Welfare statistics
Caseload Trends
Caseload Profile
Caseload and Recipients

Welfare rates (benefits)
Social Assistance Rate Schedules - (See Schedules A, B)
Family Income Security Regulation
- (See Schedules A, B)

Latest search results on Google.ca for
"welfare, -child, -animal, New Brunswick"

- Web search results
- News search results
- Blog search results

Related Links
*
2010-2011 Annual Report, Department of Social Development (PDF - 420K, 65 pages)
* Economic and Social Inclusion Corporation (poverty reduction plan)
* Overcoming Poverty Together (PDF - 1MB, 37 pages) Undated (PDF file dated January 2011)
* Overcoming Poverty Together: The New Brunswick Economic and Social Inclusion Plan (PDF - 100K, 5 pages) - November 13, 2009
* Department of Social Development Annual Report 2008-09 (PDF - 942K, 74 pages) [ links to earlier annual reports and other publications of the Department ]

* Discussion Paper on Social Policy (PDF file - 115K, 20 pages)
- February 1999 <<<=== excellent historical document

 

- Go to the Canadian Social Research Links New Brunswick page -
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/nbkmrk.htm


Québec

Department responsible for welfare
Ministère de l'Emploi et de la Solidarité sociale (English Home Page)
(Employment and Social Solidarity)

Name of the welfare programs
Social Assistance Program (for people with no severely limited capacity for employment)
Social Solidarity Program (for people with severely limited capacity for employment)

Legislation

Individual and Family Assistance Act
- Individual and Family Assistance Regulation
Source:
Laws and regulations administered by
the Minister of Employment and Social Solidarity

[ Revised statutes and Regulations of Québec ]

Policy Manual
English Resources:

* Social Assistance (see links in left margin)
* Employment assistance services

French only (no English version):
* Table des matières : Programmes d'aide financière
* Manuel d'interprétation normative des programmes d'aide financière

Welfare statistics
Recipients under social assistance programs
Youth and social assistance programs
Previous statistics
[If you can read French, see Statistiques sur la clientèle des programmes d'assistance sociale for detailed caseload profile info]
See also:
Number of People on Welfare, March 1995 to March 2005 (PDF file - 133K, 1 page)
Source: National Council of Welfare

Welfare rates (benefits)
New Benefit Amounts in Effect as of January 1, 2014 (Social Assistance Program and Social Solidarity Program) (PDF - 468K, 2 pages)

NOTE: for families with children, you must add in the amount of the child assistance payment.
Child assistance payment - The child assistance is intended to cover the basic needs of children under age 18 in low-income families, taking into account the Canada Child Tax Benefit paid by the federal government. In January 2005, the child assistance measure replaced family allowances, the non-refundable tax credit for dependent children and the tax reduction for families.

Calcul@ide - to help calculate refundable tax credits under the Child Assistance and Work Premium measures

Latest search results on Google.ca for
"welfare, -child, -animal, Quebec"
- Web search results
- News search results
- Blog search results

Related Links
Other Income Support Programs
- includes links to more info on the following programs:
* Solidarity tax credit * Tax credit for child assistance * Working income tax benefit * Work premium * Shelter Allowance Program * Canada child tax benefit * Employment Insurance (EI) * Québec Parental Insurance Plan (QPIP)
* Québec Handy Numbers, 2013 Edition (PDF - 8.4MB, 72 pages) - April 2013
*
French only : Rapport annuel de gestion 2011-2012 du ministère de l’Emploi et de la Solidarité sociale (PDF - 3.2MB, 202 pages)
* Québec Solidarity Tax Credit (Eff. July 2011)
* Pacte pour l'emploi (Employment Pact) - Announced March 18, 2008
(One billion dollars over three years to improve participation in the labour market and productivity)
* National Strategy to Combat Poverty and Social Exclusion (Overview and links to related documents)
- An Act to combat poverty and social exclusion
- Progress reports on the National Strategy - links to annual reports for all five years of the Strategy
- Centre d’étude sur la pauvreté et l’exclusion (research centre on poverty, set up under the Strategy)
- Comité consultatif de lutte contre la pauvreté et l’exclusion sociale (Advisory committee, set up under the National Strategy)
- Poverty Reduction Strategies in Quebec and in Newfoundland and Labrador (Oct/07) - from the Parliamentary Research Library (Govt. of Canada)
* Main changes under the Individual and Family Assistance Act : New programs as of January 1, 2007 (PDF, 145K, 2 pages)
* Québec Parental Insurance Plan
* The Insertion Model or the Workfare Model? The Transformation of Social Assistance within Quebec and Canada ((PDF - 2.4MB, 190 pages - September 2002) --- Excellent Quebec welfare reform information!! (from Status of Women Canada)



For more information about welfare in other Canadian jurisdictions,
see the Canadian Social Research Links Key Provincial/Territorial Welfare Links page

- Go to the Québec Links (English) page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/qce.htm

- Rendez-vous à la page de liens de recherche sociale au Québec:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/qcbkmrk.htm


Ontario

Department responsible for welfare
Community and Social Services

Name of the welfare program
Ontario Works - for eligible people without disabilities 

Ontario Disability Support Program (ODSP) - for eligible people with disabilities

Legislation
Ontario Works Act
- General Regulation ===> main welfare regulations for people without disabilities
- Administration and Cost-sharing
- Designation of Geographic Areas and Delivery Agents
- Prescribed Policy Statements

Ontario Disability Support Program Act
- General Regulation ===> main welfare regulations for people with disabilities
- Administration and Cost-sharing
- Assistance for Children with severe Disabilities
- Employment Supports
- Prescribed Policy Statements
Source:
Ontario Statutes and Regulations

Policy Manuals
Ontario Works Policy Directives

ODSP Income Support Policy Directives
ODSP - Employment Support Directives

City of Toronto : Ontario Works Directives
[Click this link and then (on the next page) click "Policies and Procedures" in the left margin for Toronto's Ontario Works policy manual]

Welfare statistics
Ontario Disability Support Program Statistical Report
Ontario Works Statistical Report
See also:
Number of People on Welfare, March 1995 to March 2005 (PDF file - 133K, 1 page) Source: National Council of Welfare

Welfare rates (benefits)
* Ontario : Current Social Assistance Rates (July/August 2014 - Word file - 100K, 2 pages)NEW
* Social Assistance, Pension and Tax Credit Rates, January to March 2014 (PDF - 168K, 2 pages) ---
Prepared by the Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services [Source: Community Advocacy and Legal Centre]
* Ontario Social Assistance Rates (Word file) Eff. Sept./Oct. 2013
(Source : Income Security Advocacy Centre - ISAC)
* Ontario Works Policy Directives (see sections 6 &7)
* ODSP Income Support Policy Directives (see sections 6-9)
* Part V of the Ontario Disability Support Program Regulation

* Section 41 of the Ontario Works Regulation
+ for families with chidren:
Ontario Child Benefit
- from the Ministry of Children and Youth Services

Latest search results on Google.ca for
"welfare, -child, -animal, Ontario"
- Web search results
- News search results
- Blog search results

Related Links
* From Isthatlegal.ca (Ontario):
--- Legal Guide : Welfare (Ontario Works) Law
--- Legal Guide : Ontario Disability Support Program (ODSP) Law
* Ontario Social Assistance Review Links page

* Ontario Trillium Benefit (Eff. July 2012)
* Annual Report of the Auditor General of Ontario for 2011 (December 5/11)
* Review of social assistance in Ontario (2011)
* Ontario Social Assistance Review Commission
* Special Diet Allowance Changes April 1, 2011
* Ontario Launches Comprehensive Social Assistance Review (Nov. 30/10)
* 2009-2010 Annual Report : Ministry of Community and Social Services
- this annual report is part of the Results-based Plan Briefing Book 2010-11
...from the Ministry of Community and Social Services
* Social Assistance (Legal rights guide) - from CLEO - Community Legal Education Ontario
* [ Social Assistance Advisory Council Members - biographical notes ]
* Recommendations for an Ontario Income Security Review: Report of the Ontario social Assistance Review Advisory Council (May 2010)
* Letters from Community and Social Services Minister Madeleine Meilleur
to the Chair of the Social Assistance Review Advisory Council:
(1) June 10, 2010 (PDF - 22K, 2 pages)
(2) March 26, 2010 (PDF - 42K, 1 page)
* Ontario Poverty Reduction Strategy : Breaking the Cycle (PDF - 1.3MB, 45 pages) - December 4, 2008
[ Highlights ] Source: Ontario's Poverty Reduction Strategy
Poverty Watch Ontario (NGO reactions to the poverty reduction strategy)
Income Security Advocacy Centre
* Welfare raise leaves cheque at 1988 levels (Nov. 1/08) from The Toronto Star
* Report of the Provincial-Municipal Fiscal and Service Delivery Review - Facing the Future Together (PDF - 1.6MB, 64 pages) Fall 2008
* Ontario's Poverty Reduction Strategy - home page
* Ontario Poverty Reduction Strategy - from the 2008 Ontario Budget (March 25, 2008)
* Poverty Watch Ontario - "To monitor and inform on cross-Ontario activity on the poverty reduction agenda"
* Ontario Child Benefit - from the Ministry of Children and Youth Services
* Review of Employment Assistance Programs in Ontario Works & Ontario Disability Support Program (PDF file - 167K, 48 pages) December 2004 - By Deb Matthews, M.P.P.

 

- Go to the Guide to Welfare in Ontario page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/onwelf.htm

- guide to government information on how welfare works in Ontario, including information about responsibilities for the delivery and payment of welfare and other programs in Ontario

- Go to the Ontario Government Links page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/onbkmrk.htm

- Go to the Ontario Spouse-in-the-House Links page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/spouse.htm

- Go to the Ontario Municipal and Non-Governmental Sites (A-C) page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/onbkmrk2.htm

- Go to the Ontario Municipal and Non-Governmental Sites (D-W) page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/onbkmrk3.htm

- Go to the Ontario Social Assistance Review Links page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/on_sa_review.htm

- Rendez-vous à la page de liens aux sites de recherche sociale en Ontario:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/onf.htm


Manitoba

Department responsible for welfare
Entrepreneurship, Training and Trade

[ In January 2012, funding and program responsibilities for the Employment and Income Assistance Program were transferred to Manitoba Entrepreneurship, Training and Trade. ]

Name of the welfare program
Employment and Income Assistance (EIA)

Legislation
The Manitoba Assistance Act
(C.C.S.M. c. A150)
NOTE : The Manitoba Assistance Act replaced the Employment and Income Assistance Act on July 01, 2014.

- Employment and Income Assistance Regulation (PDF)
Source:
Laws and Regulations of Manitoba

Policy Manual
EIA Administrative Manual Online

- online welfare policy manual, includes legislation

Welfare statistics
Go to the latest Departmental. annual report - welfare stats are under "Employment and Income Assistance Division"
See also:
Number of People on Welfare, March 1995 to March 2005
(PDF file - 133K, 1 page)
Source: National Council of Welfare

Welfare rates (benefits)
Click the welfare program link above, then select a client category (single parents, persons with a disability or general assistance category) to access an EIA brochure that includes benefit levels for that category.
OR
Click the Employment and Income Assistance Regulation link above. The benefit levels appear in Schedule "A" of the Regulation.

Latest search results on Google.ca for
"welfare, -child, -animal, Manitoba"

- Web search results
- News search results
- Blog search results

Related Links
* 2011-2012 Annual Report (PDF - 1.2MB, 114 pages) of the
Department of Entrepreneurship, Training and Trade
* Annual Reports - Manitoba Family Services and Housing (2001-2002 to 2011-12
)
* ALL Aboard: 2010-11 Highlights (Word [.doc] file - 39K, 1 page) - April 2010
* AllAboard - Manitoba’s Poverty Reduction Strategy (PDF - 562K, 8 pages) - May 2009
Source: ALL Aboard: Manitoba’s Poverty Reduction Strategy
* Anti-poverty initiatives to help Manitobans help themselves (November 26/07)
* New Child Benefit, Lower-cost Child Care, Stronger Work Incentives, And Skills Package in 10-point Reconstruction of Income Supports (April 10, 2007)

 

- Go to the Canadian Social Research Links Manitoba page -
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/mbkmrk.htm


Saskatchewan

Department responsible for welfare
Social Services

Name of the welfare program
Saskatchewan Assistance Program (SAP)
Transitional Employment Allowance (TEA)

Legislation 
Saskatchewan Assistance Act
NOTE: the links below take you to the front page for each reg - from that page, just click the "Open Document" button to open a PDF file with the regulation
- Saskatchewan Assistance Regulations ===> main welfare regulations
- Employment Supplement Regulations
- Benefit Adjustment Regulations
- Transitional Employment Allowance Regulations
- Rental Housing Supplement Regulations
- Disability Housing Supplement Regulations
- Saskatchewan Assistance Plan Supplementary Health Benefits Regulations

Policy Manual
Saskatchewan Assistance Program Policy Manual Online (PDF file)
Transitional Employment Allowance Policy Manual (PDF file)

Welfare statistics
No Saskatchewan Assistance Program statistics available on the Social Services website (except for a smattering of stats in the
2010-2011 Saskatchewan Social Services Annual Report )

- See Number of People on Welfare, March 1995 to March 2005 (PDF file - 133K, 1 page) Source: National Council of Welfare

Welfare rates (benefits)
Current Social Assistance Rates (PDF file)
See also section 25 of the Saskatchewan Assistance Regulations
Chapter 15 of the SAP Policy Manual Online (see link above) offers information on individual items of need and special needs, but no rate tables

Transitional Employment Allowance Rate Schedule (PDF file)

Latest search results on Google.ca for
"welfare, -child, -animal, Saskatchewan"
- Web search results
- News search results
- Blog search results

Related Links
* Income Program Opens to People with Long-Term Disabilities (November 3, 2009)
* Saskatchewan Assured Income for Disability (SAID)
* SAID Policy Manual (PDF - 59K, 19 pages)
* SAID Questions and Answers (PDF - 262K, 4 pages)
* Final Recommendations of the Task Team on Income Support for People with Disabilities (PDF - 217K, 18 pages) - May 13, 2009
* Appendices to the Final Recommendations report (PDF - 815K, 133 pages)
* 2006-2007 Annual Report (PDF file - 816K, 33 pages)
* Saskatchewan Income Plan (for seniors)
* Family Health Benefits
(PDF - 925K, 2 pages) Family Health Benefits are intended to assist lower income families with the costs of raising healthy children (Source: Saskatchewan Health)
* Current Issues Surrounding Poverty and Welfare Programming in Canada : Two Reviews (PDF file - 371K, 43 pages) - August 2003
- interesting comparison of recent welfare reforms in Saskatchewan, Canada, the U.S. and Britain
- includes a bonus ten-page article entitled Low Income Cut-Offs (LICO) and Poverty Measurement (LICO, Market Basket Measure, etc.)
TIP===> See the appendix to this report (pp 27-31) for a detailed comparison of the main features of the "old" Saskatchewan Assistance Plan (welfare) and the new Transitional Employment Allowance.
Source: Social Policy Research Unit (SPR)

- Go to the Canadian Social Research Links Saskatchewan page -
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/skbkmrk.htm


Alberta

Department responsible for welfare
Human Services

Name of the welfare program
Income Support - part of Alberta Works

Legislation
Income and Employment Supports Act

- Child and Adult Support Services Regulation
- Disability-Related Employment Supports and Services Regulation
- Income Support, Training and Health Benefits Regulation
===> main welfare regulations
- Recovery Regulation
- Support Agreement Regulation
- Temporary Employment and Job Creation Programs Regulation
- Training Provider Regulation

Policy Manual
Income Support Program Policy
Expected to Work/Not Expected to Work Policy & Procedures ===> main welfare policy
Learner Policy and Procedures
Source:
Alberta Works Policy Manual
On this page, you'll find links to:
- Income and Employment Supports Act and Regulation
- Employment and Training Programs (Programs and Services, Accountability, Employment Insurance Initiatives, News and Updates)
- Child Support Services (Child Support Services Policy, News and Updates)
- H
ealth Benefits Programs (General Policy, Health Benefits Card Coverage, Alberta Adult Health Benefit, Alberta Child Health Benefit, Health Benefits Review Committee, News and Updates)

Welfare Statistics
Alberta Income Support Caseload - monthly welfare statistics
Source: Alberta Office of Statistics
Number of People on Welfare, March 1995 to March 2005 (PDF file - 133K, 1 page)
Source: National Council of Welfare

Welfare rates (benefits)
See Schedule 1 (Core Income Support Payments) and Schedule 2 (Continuous Supplementary Benefits) at the end of the Income Supports, Health and Training Benefits Regulation
Historical: see Alberta Supports Low-Income Families Through the National Child Benefit (July 30, 2001) - includes a detailed backgrounder with rate calculation information

Related Links
*Alberta Supports (Seniors - Employment & Training - Persons with Disabilities - Lower Income - Children & Youth - Abuse & Bullying - Homeless - Making Life Decisions)
* Province provides more help to Albertans in need (Oct. 22/08)
* Government increases AISH rates and supports employment (Jan. 31/08)
* Low-Income Review presents a vision for the future (May 22/02)
* Assured Income for the Severely Handicapped (AISH)
- AISH Policy Manual
* Alberta welfare reforms a model for other provinces, says C.D. Howe Institute study (PDF file - 668K, 38 pages) - April 1997 Source: C.D. Howe Institute

 

Latest search results on Google.ca for
"welfare, -child, -animal, Alberta"

- Web search results
- News search results
- Blog search results

- Go to the Canadian Social Research Links Alberta Links page - 
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/abkmrk.htm


British Columbia

Department responsible for welfare
Ministry of Social Development and Social Innovation

Name of the welfare program
BC Employment and Assistance Program

Legislation
Employment and Assistance Act
- Employment and Assistance Regulations
Employment and Assistance for Persons with Disabilities Act
- Employment and Assistance for Persons with Disabilities Regulations

Source:
BC Laws

Policy Manual
Ministry of Social Development and Social Innovation Online Resource
* Online resource Table of contents (PDF)

Welfare statistics
BC Employment and Assistance Latest Month Caseload Statistics (incl. time series stats)
Social Statistics - from BC Stats
Labour and Social Statistics - from BC Stats
See also:
Number of People on Welfare, March 1995 to March 2005 (PDF file - 133K, 1 page)
Source: National Council of Welfare

Welfare rates (benefits)
Increases to Income Assistance Rates (Feb. 20/07)
- incl. rates before and after April/07
Income Assistance rates - (effective January 1, 2005)
Disability Assistance rates - (effective January 1, 2005)
Source:
BC Employment and Assistance Rate Tables

- incl. links to other welfare allowances for special needs and other benefits

Plus (for children):
BC Family Bonus - from the Ministry of Small Business and Revenue

Latest search results on Google.ca for
"welfare, -child, -animal, British Columbia"

- Web search results
- News search results
- Blog search results

Related Links
* The Cost of Eating in BC 2011 Report (PDF file - 4.6MB, 16 pages) [Feb. 2012] - from the Dietitians of Canada

* The Rise and Fall of Welfare Time Limits in BC (PDF - 294K, 37 pages) - June 2008
Source: Vancouver Island Public Interest Group
Related links ===> see British Columbia Welfare Time Limits
* Living on Welfare in BC: Experiences of Longer-Term “Expected to Work” Recipients
- April 2008 (PDF - 2.7MB) Source: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA) - British Columbia Office
* MEIA Service Plan, 2008/2009 to 2010/2011 (from BC Budget 2008 - Feb. 19/08)
* MEIA Service Plans and Annual Reports
* Still Left behind : A Comparison of Living Costs and Income Assistance in British Columbia
(PDF - February 2008, from the Social Planning and Research Council)
* Denied Assistance: Closing the Front Door on Welfare in BC (PDF file - 564K, 69 pages) (March 27, 2006) - from the BC Office - CCPA

--------------------------------------------------

- Go to the BC Government Links page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/bcbkmrk.htm

- Go to the Non-Governmental Sites in British Columbia (A-C) page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/bcbkmrk2.htm

- Go to the Non-Governmental Sites in British Columbia (C-W) page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/bcbkmrk3.htm

- Go to the BC Welfare Time Limits Links page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/bc_welfare_time_limits.htm


Yukon

Department responsible for welfare
Health and Social Services

Name of the welfare program
Social Assistance

Legislation
Yukon Social Assistance Act
(PDF file - 125K, 6 pages)
- Yukon Social Assistance Regulations (PDF file - 576K, 45 pages)
[ Government of Yukon Legislation ]

Policy Manual
No policy manual.
See the main page of the Social Assistance program for:

* Contact Information
* Frequently Asked Questions
* How to Apply for Social Assistance
* Review Hearing
* Employment and Training Services Brochure
* Income Deductions Brochure
* Social Assistance Act
* Social Assistance Overview Booklet
* Social Assistance Review Hearing Booklet
* Supplementary Allowance Brochure
* The Yukon Child Benefit Booklet

 

Welfare statistics
Bureau of Statistics (no welfare stats)
See also:
Number of People on Welfare, March 1995 to March 2005 (PDF file - 133K, 1 page)
Source: National Council of Welfare

Welfare rates (benefits)
- See s.18-21 and Schedule A of the S.A. Regulations (PDF file - 144K, 42 pages)

Latest search results on Google.ca for
"welfare, -child, -animal, Yukon"

- Web search results
- News search results
- Blog search results

Related Links
- Social Assistance Reform Complete - May 28/08

[ more Yukon news releases about social assistance ]

- Go to the Canadian Social Research Links Yukon page
- http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/yk.htm


Northwest Territories

Department responsible for welfare
Education, Culture and Employment (ECE)

Name of the welfare program
Income Assistance

Policy Manuals
Income Assistance Program Policy Manual (PDF file - 094K, 98 pages)
NWT Student Financial Assistance (PDF - 2.1MB, 107 pages)
Source: Policy, Procedures and Guidelines

Legislation
Social Assistance Act
(PDF file - 48K, 10 pages)
Income Assistance Regulations (PDF file - 131K, 37 pages)
[ NWT Statutes and Regulations - Dept. of Justice ]

Welfare statistics
Number of People on Welfare, March 1995 to March 2005 (PDF file - 133K, 1 page)
Source: National Council of Welfare

Welfare rates (benefits)
- See Schedule "A" of the
Income Assistance Regulations
- see also sections 3 and 4 of the Income Assistance policy manual

Latest search results on Google.ca for
"welfare, -child, -animal, Northwest Territories"

- Web search results
- News search results
- Blog search results

Related Links
Income Security Reforms
--- Community Voices - April 2006 (PDF - 930.81 K)
--- Breaking Down the Barriers - July 2007 (PDF - 1.26 MB)
--- News Release - Income Security Reform - August 2007 (PDF - 18.88 K)
--- Backgrounder – Income Security Changes - August 2007 (PDF - 54.4 K)
--- Backgrounder – Income Assistance Changes - August 2007 (PDF - 224.89 K)
--- Income Security Review Changes 2007-2008 - Q&A - August 2007(PDF - 69.31 K)

 

- Go to the Canadian Social Research Links Northwest Territories page -
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/ntbkmrk.htm


Nunavut

Department responsible for welfare
Education

Name of the welfare program
Income Support Program
Social Assistance

Legislation
Social Assistance Act
- Nunavut Social Assistance Regulations
NOTE: Use the Nunavut Dept of Justice legislation search engine to find the latest version of the Social Assistance Act and Regulations.

Policy Manual
None found (April 2010)

Welfare statistics
(no welfare stats)
See:
Number of People on Welfare, March 1995 to March 2005 (PDF file - 133K, 1 page)
Source: National Council of Welfare

Welfare rates (benefits)
- "Schedule A" of the Regulations (see above) contains social assistance benefit levels

Latest search results on Google.ca for
"welfare, -child, -animal, Nunavut"

- Web search results
- News search results
- Blog search results

Related Links

-

- Go to the Canadian Social Research Links Nunavut page -
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/nunavut.htm


 

 

This space reserved for Canada's
14th province/territory

The New Map of Canada
[Click the above text or
the map for a larger view]



NOTES:
(The notes below apply to all Canadian jurisdictions unless otherwise stipulated.)
 

Welfare rates (Benefit levels)

From the
Caledon Institute of Social Policy:

Welfare in Canada 2012
http://www.caledoninst.org/Publications/Detail/?ID=1031
News Release
December 11, 2013
This report focuses on the incomes of four different households living on social assistance, commonly known as “welfare.” It is a continuation of the welfare incomes series published regularly by the now-defunct National Council of Welfare [ http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/ncw.htm ].
- includes highlights of the report.

The complete report:

Welfare in Canada 2012
http://www.caledoninst.org/Publications/PDF/1031ENG.pdf (PDF - 256K, 92 pages)
News Release
By Anne Tweddle, Ken Battle and Sherri Torjman
December 2013

Table of contents:

Introduction
What is welfare?
Assets
Income
Welfare incomes <===================Estimated annual incomes for individuals receiving welfare during the year.
Welfare incomes over time
Adequacy of welfare incomes
Poverty measures
Low income cut-offs
Market Basket Measure
Income measures
After-tax average incomes
After-tax median incomes
---
Tables:
* Liquid Asset Exemption Levels as of January 2012 : Provisions for Applicants and Recipients
* Monthly Earnings Exemption Levels as of January 2012 : Provisions for Applications and Recipients
* Comparison of 2012 Welfare Incomes with After-Tax Low Income Cut-offs (LICOS)
* Comparison of 2012 Welfare Incomes with Market Basket Measure (MBM)
* 2012 Welfare Incomes as a Percentage of After-tax Average Incomes
* 2012 Welfare Incomes as a Percentage of After-tax Median Incomes
---
Appendices:
* 2012 Welfare Incomes, by Household Component
* Total Welfare Incomes Over Time, in Constant 2012 Dollars, by province/territory

Source:
Caledon Institute of Social Policy

http://www.caledoninst.org/
The Caledon Institute is a social policy think tank. Established in 1992 as a private, nonprofit organization, it performs high-quality research and analysis. It seeks to inform and influence public opinion and to foster public discussion on poverty and social policy.


From the
National Council of Welfare*:

June 5, 2012
Total Welfare Incomes in 2011
by Province and Territory
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/welfare_incomes_2011.htm
"Total Welfare Incomes" includes the following: basic welfare allowances, regularly paid special welfare allowances (e.g. back to school benefits, disability supplements), child benefits (federal and provincial) and tax credits (federal and provincial).
Total incomes are shown for four different Household types:
* Couple, Two Children
* Lone Parent, One Child
* Person with a Disability
* Single Employable

For more information on the methodology used to prepare the 2011 total welfare incomes, see:
Welfare Incomes 2009
(PDF - 6MB, 117 pages)
- from Publications Canada

---

Earlier editions of Welfare incomes:
http://goo.gl/dnp4O
From Publications Canada


* NOTE : The National Council of Welfare (NCW) [ http://www.ncw.gc.ca/ ] closed its doors and its website at the end of September 2012.
For more information on the demise of the Council and its website AND its website archive, go to the National Council of Welfare Links page: http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/ncw.htm


Welfare and the Canada Child Tax Benefit

Important note for anyone
comparing welfare rates across different Canadian jurisdictions:

Since its launch in the summer of 1998, the federal-provincial-territorial National Child Benefit (NCB) initiative has imposed a change in the way welfare rates for families with children can be compared across Canadian jurisdictions. The federal Canada Child Tax Benefit is now integrated with income support (welfare) for families with children in a number of Canadian jurisdictions - but not all. This means that any interprovincial comparison of welfare rates for families must, for the sake of comparability, include the basic welfare benefit for the household AND the total of any federal/provincial/territorial child benefits that the family receives on behalf of each child.

Canadian jurisdictions have adopted different approaches in their treatment of the CCTB and provincial-territorial child benefits for welfare rate calculations.
S
ee Approaches to Replacing Social Assistance Benefits for Children - from the 2006 National child Benefit Progress Report.


From the Canada Revenue Agency:
[ http://www.cra-arc.gc.ca/menu-e.html ]

Canada Child Tax Benefit Guideline Table : July 2014 to June 2015
The Government of Canada’s Canada Child Tax Benefit (CCTB) system comprises the CCTB Base Benefit and the NCB Supplement. The CCTB targets low-and middle-income families with children, and the NCB Supplement provides low-income families with child benefits in addition to the CCTB base benefit.

NOTES:
1. If you wish to know more about the CCTB program or the NCB Supplement before proceeding, check:
Child and Family Benefits
http://www.cra-arc.gc.ca/bnfts/menu-eng.html
- includes links to information about : * Canada Child Tax Benefit * Universal Child Care Benefit * GST/HST credit * Working Income Tax Benefit * Provincial and territorial programs * Children's special allowances
2. CCTB and Welfare :
Canadian jurisdictions have adopted different approaches in their treatment of the CCTB and provincial-territorial child benefits for welfare rate calculations. For more info, see "Comparing welfare rates for families in different provinces" (near the bottom of this yellow text box)

------------------------------------------------

Canada Child Tax Benefit (CCTB) Guideline Table effective July 2014 - June 2015 (based on 2013 tax year)
This table shows the amount of the Canada Child Tax Benefit that's payable from July 2014 to June 2015 to a household with one, two, three, four and five children with family income ranging from $25,584 to $150,000.
[FACTOID: According to this table, a family with five children and an annual family income of $150,000 (in 2013) is entitled to a monthly CCTB payment of $16.42.]

Monthly NCB Supplement only entitlement - July 2014 - June 2015 (based on 2013 tax year)

Guideline tables for earlier years
- includes links to both of the above tables going back to the 2007-2008 benefit period (2006 tax year)

Related links

Canada Child Benefits, July 2014 to June 2015
(Including related federal, provincial, and territorial programs)

Source:
Canada Child Tax Benefit
[ Child and Family Benefits - includes links to : * Canada Child Tax Benefit * Universal Child Care Benefit * GST/HST credit * Working Income Tax Benefit * Provincial and territorial programs * Children's special allowances ]

Provincial and territorial child benefit and credit programs (July 2014 to June 2015)
that are related to the Canada Child Tax Benefit:
* Alberta Family Employment Tax Credit * BC Family Bonus and BC low income climate action tax credit * New Brunswick Child Tax Benefit * Nova Scotia Child Benefit * Newfoundland and Labrador Child Benefit (and Mother Baby Nutrition Supplement) * Northwest Territories Child Benefit * Nunavut Child Benefit * Ontario Child Benefit * Saskatchewan low-income tax credit (SLITC) * Yukon Child Benefit
[NOTE: Residents of Québec must apply to the
Régie des rentes for the child assistance payment.]

Source:
Canada Revenue Agency

---

More information about the
National Child Benefit Supplement

Source:
2006 National Child Benefit Progress Report
[ National Child Benefit website ]

Also from the NCB website:

The Government of Canada's
Contribution to the National Child Benefit Initiative

Comparing welfare rates for families in different provinces?
Be careful..

Because Canadian jurisdictions have adopted different approaches in their treatment of the CCTB and provincial-territorial child benefits for welfare rate calculations, it's becoming exceptionally difficult to compare welfare rates across provinces and territories for families with children. For more detailed information on child benefit clawbacks and pass-ons, see Approaches to Replacing Social Assistance Benefits for Children from the 2006 National child Benefit Progress Report.

---------------------------

Comparing welfare rates for families in different provinces?
Be careful..
.

When I added the above links to the CCTB amounts for all tax years, I thought I should also update the list of provincial and territorial child benefit programs that are related to the CCTB, all under the umbrella of the National Child Benefit (NCB) initiative. As I read that list for myself, my heart went out to the hapless analysts in government and non-governmental researchers whose job duties include comparing welfare rates across jurisdictions, especially for families with kids. Since the launch of the NCB initiative in 1998, many provinces and territories have been creating separate children's benefits programs for all children in low-income families, not only those on social assistance. And thus I came to understand what David Ross (former Director of the Canadian Council on Social Development and a respected champion of social justice issues) had meant when he said back in the early 1990s something about "taking kids off welfare". In the case of families in receipt of welfare, it's generally child-related costs that constitute the so-called "welfare wall", which is the loss of non-cash benefits like vision, drug and dental coverage when a household head leaves welfare for a job. I wholeheartedly support the provincial-territorial government trend towards paying child-related financial benefits to *all* low-income households outside of welfare, so that families can leave welfare more readily without losing their children's benefits. HOWEVER, because Canadian jurisdictions have adopted different approaches in their treatment of the CCTB and provincial-territorial child benefits for welfare rate calculations, it's getting exceptionally difficult to compare welfare rates across provinces and territories, especially for families with children.

The National Council of Welfare has been doing interprovincial welfare rate comparisons going back to 1986 (annually since 1989) for various family types and sizes, and their rate information is always vetted for factual accuracy by government officials in each jurisdiction prior to release. The latest complete annual report in this series is Welfare Incomes 2009 (PDF - 6.2MB, 117 pages - December 2010). The comparative rate tables in this report take into account the treatment of child benefits in the welfare system of each jurisdiction. There's also a brief overview of the different approaches that provinces and territories have adopted concerning child benefits and welfare. For more detailed information on child benefit clawbacks and pass-ons, see Approaches to Replacing Social Assistance Benefits for Children - from the 2007 National child Benefit Progress Report.

For more than 20 of my 30 years in the federal civil service, I was responsible for producing and maintaining detailed welfare rate information for each province and territory for the administration of the Canada Assistance Plan. Part of my job was supporting the Council in the production of their welfare incomes series, and I can vouch for the rigid verification process that the Council followed to ensure a high-quality report. It's the ONLY source that I'd recommend for longitudinal welfare rate comparisons across Canada.
On behalf of welfare researchers everywhere, I'd like to thank the provincial and territorial government officials who take the time to provide feedback on rates for their jurisdiction in each edition of Welfare Incomes and thus ensure that the series is a factually-accurate, credible resource for all to use freely.

---

Related information :

National Child Benefit (NCB) Progress Report: 2007
HTML version
- table of contents + links to individual sections of the report
PDF version
(1.3MB, 116 pages)
Table of contents of the report:
Message from Federal/Provincial/Territorial Ministers Responsible for Social Services
* Executive Summary
* Chapter 1 – The National Child Benefit Supplement
* Chapter 2 – National Child Benefit Programs and Services for Low-income Families with Children
-----------
NOTE: Chapter 2 of the report contains detailed information about the three different approaches used to harmonize/integrate federal and provincial-territorial children's benefits paid to Canadian families. This is compulsory reading for anyone who does welfare rate comparisons for families with children across Canadian provinces and territories.
-----------

* Chapter 3 – The First Nations National Child Benefit Reinvestment Initiative
* Chapter 4 – Monitoring Progress - Societal Level Indicators
* Chapter 5 – Assessing the Direct Impact of the National Child Benefit Initiative
* Chapter 6 – The Way Ahead
* Appendix 1 – Glossary
* Appendix 2 – Provincial, Territorial and First Nations National Child Benefit Reinvestments and Investments
* Appendix 3 – Results of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) Analysis
* Appendix 4 – Additional Statistical Information

The NCB Progress Report: 2007 – Pamphlet

News Release:

The Ninth National Child Benefit Progress Report
May 14, 2010
Federal, Provincial and Territorial Ministers Responsible for Social Services are pleased to release to Canadians the ninth report on the progress of the National Child Benefit (NCB). The National Child Benefit Progress Report: 2007 shows that the NCB is improving the economic well-being of families with children living in low income.

---

Earlier reports in this series

Source:
National Child Benefit website

See also:

* Child and Family Benefits Page [ Canada Revenue Agency ]

See the Unofficial Social Union Links page for more about the NCB and NCB reports
See also the Unofficial Provincial/Territorial Social Union/NCB Links page of this site for over 200 links to information from all provinces and territories about their programs under the NCB initiative.


Working Joe vs Welfare Joe
This piece of garbage started doing the rounds recently, comparing the annual income of Working Joe, a poor stiff making $25/hour in construction, and Welfare Joe - parasite, Casino regular and bon-vivant. It might make a more compelling story if the facts weren't out in left field.
If anyone forwards the Working-Joe-Welfare-Joe email to you, please feel free to refer them to the Working Joe link.

Income Assistance (welfare)
for members of First Nations living on a reserve

From the website of
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada:


Income assistance (welfare / social assistance) for
Members of First Nations living on reserve:

NOTE : First Nations members living off-reserve must apply for welfare to the provincial authority where they reside, and they are treated like any other applicant.

From
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada:

Social Programs
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC) funds the delivery of five key social development programs in First Nation communities:
* Income Assistance Program
* National Child Benefit Reinvestment
* Assisted Living Program
* First Nations Child and Family Services Program
* Family Violence Prevention Program
These services help First Nation communities meet basic and special needs; support employability and attachment to the workforce; and ensure that individuals and families are safe. First Nations that are engaged in advancing their own development are better equipped to leverage opportunities made available by their communities and actively contribute to the broader Canadian economy and society.

National Social Programs Manual
NOTE: this isn't a policy manual for use in program delivery to clients. It spells out the terms and conditions under which Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada provides funding for social programs, including income assistance. It covers such matters as program components, funding arrangements, financial administration, and reporting and compliance, to name but a few.
TIP : If you scroll down past the Overview section of the table of contents, you'll find detailed terms and conditions for the Income Assistance program.

Income Assistance Program
The Income Assistance program provides funding to assist eligible individuals and families who are ordinarily resident on-reserve, with basic and special needs services that are aligned with those provided to other residents of the reference province or territory.

Equipping First Nations people to fully participate in the economy is a priority for the Government of Canada and First Nations. That's why, through Economic Action Plan 2013, the Government will work with First Nations to improve the on-reserve Income Assistance Program to help ensure First Nation youth can access the skills and training they need to secure employment.
(...)
Communities that participate in this new approach will be required to implement mandatory participation in training for young Income Assistance clients.

The above Income Assistance Program page includes links to the following:
--- Income Assistance Background
--- Improving Income Assistance
--- Income Assistance: Active Measures
--- Income Assistance Key Facts
--- Income Assistance Program: Dependency Rate on Reserve, 2011-2012
--- Income Assistance Success Stories
--- Active Measures: What Are People Saying?
--- First Nations Job Fund
--- Publications and Resources
--- Recipient Reporting Guide 2012-2013
--- Year-End Financial Reporting Handbook

---

More Aboriginal
social program information:

* Assisted Living Program * Family Violence Prevention Program * Non-Insured Health Benefits * Band Moneys * Indian Status * Wills and Estates * National Child Benefit Reinvestment Initiative * First Nation Child and Family Services Program

Source:
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada


Social/Income Assistance for
Immigrants and Visitors to Canada

Different rules apply depending on whether someone wishes to come to Canada as an immigrant (i.e., permanently), a visitor, a worker (temporarily), a student or a refugee.
Select a link below for more information on eligibility and benefit levels for each program.

Immigrate
If you want to immigrate to Canada, there are a few different ways to apply. You will need to decide which immigration program will work best for you and your family.

Visit
Every year, more than 5million people visit Canada. Depending on where you live, and the reason for your visit, you will need to meet certain entry requirements. In some cases, if you plan to stay in Canada for a certain period of time, you will need a Temporary Resident Visa.

Work temporarily
Every year, over 90,000 foreign workers enter Canada to work temporarily in jobs that help Canadian employers address skill shortages, or as live-in caregivers.
A work permit is needed for most temporary jobs in Canada, though for some positions and business people it is not necessary.

Study
More than 130,000 students come to study in Canada every year and even more come to Canada to learn English or French.

Refugees
Refugees and people needing protection are people in or outside Canada who fear returning to their home country. Groups and individuals can sponsor refugees from abroad who qualify to come to Canada.

Source:
Canada International (Government of Canada)

 

Welfare Statistics

July 2011
From Human Resources and Skills Development Canada:

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2008
[Posted online July 2011]
Produced by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Directors of Income Support
This report includes a description of, and statistics related to, the welfare system in each province and territory, information about federal-provincial-territorial jurisdictional and funding issues, a bit of historical info on the Canada Assistance Plan and the Canada Health and Social Transfer, etc.

"In recognition of the growing public demand for comprehensive information on provincial and territorial social assistance programs and caseloads, the Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2008 is the fifth annual joint publication by federal, provincial and territorial governments. The report provides a general overview of social assistance in Canada, as well as a description of income support-related/social assistance programs in each jurisdiction. This report does not include social assistance rates as this information is currently available to the public on most provincial and territorial government Web sites."
(Excerpt from Chapter 1 - Summary)

NOTE: Chapter Two of the report is a seven-page descriptive overview of social assistance in Canada in 2008, comprising a (very) brief history of federal social assistance since 1966 and general information about how welfare works in Canadian provinces and territories (including the treatment of federal child benefits under welfare programs, welfare eligibility conditions and administrative rules, etc.). Other chapters of the report provide, for each province and territory, information on eligibility (including asset and income exemption levels) and benefits (but no actual benefit levels), as well as an impressive number of statistical tables, graphs and charts providing numbers of cases and beneficiaries (time series statistics going back as far as the mid-1990s, depending on the jurisdiction), profile information (age/education/sex of household head, cases by reason for assistance) and even (for most jurisdictions) the percentage of households reporting income.

Source:
[ Human Resources and Skills Development Canada ]

< Begin social researcher's lament. >

It's great to see the 2008 edition of this report online*, but the numbers in this report *are* over three years old --- none of the welfare ripple effects of the economic disaster of 2008 and 2009 are evident in the March 2008 stats in this report. This really isn't timely enough to help in the policy formulation process, nor is it timely enough to ensure accountability with respect to spending by federal, provincial and territorial governments on Canada's social assistance programs.
---
* "Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2008" is online, but not on the HRSDC website. The above links point to a copy of the report that was archived by the Internet Archive. Thanks for nothing, HRSDC.
---

So why are timely welfare statistics important?
To tell, among other things, how many new welfare cases are "EI exhaustees" (households whose Employment Insurance benefit period has expired) and how many are there because they didn't qualify for EI in the first place. Welfare reporting must be comprehensive AND reasonably current.
Perhaps it's time to farm out the production of welfare statistics and related information to an objective, non-politicized third party...

< /End social researcher's lament. >

------------------------------------------------------

Welfare Dependency in Canada - National Statistics
For the fiscal year ending March 31, 2011, about $6.6 Billion of the federal government's Canada Social Transfer to the provinces and territories will be for welfare and social programs.
As taxpayers, how can we tell whether that money is well spent if the latest national, public welfare dependency statistics are for March 2005?
Click the link above to access a table showing the number of people receiving provincial-territorial welfare benefits by province and territory, from March 1995 to March 2005
PLUS a comparable table showing the number of people receiving provincial-territorial welfare benefits for the period from March 2005 to March 2009 prepared by the Institut de la statistique du Québec in the context of the Institut's ongoing interprovincial comparisons.
PLUS a rant about the pitiful state of Canadian welfare statistics and why the Canadian Social Research Links Guy thinks the situation may get worse before it gets better.

Some tidbits from the table
that you'll find by clicking the above link:

In March 1995, there were 3,070,900 people on welfare in Canada.
By 2005, that number had dropped to 1, 682, 500.
In March 2009, there were 1, 711, 500 people on welfare in Canada.
The percentage of the Canadian population on welfare in March 2005 was 5.2%.
By March 2009, that proportion had decreased to 5.1%.
[% of the population was not calculated in March 1995.]

Un GROS MERCI à l'Institut de la statistique du Québec d'avoir produit
et rendu publique cette source précieuse de statistiques sur l'aide sociale au Canada!

A GIANT THANK-YOU to the Institut de la statistique du Québec [English Home Page]
for producing this important table on welfare dependency and for posting it online for all to use.

------------------------------

Number of People on Welfare, March 1995 to March 2005 (PDF file - 133K, 1 page)

These statistics were collected by the National Council of Welfare and published in the Council's report on Welfare Incomes for 2005 after they were verified to be correct by each jurisdiction.


September 12, 2010
NOTE: See Welfare stats are important! for a rare (but deserved) accolade from me on behalf of all social researchers to the five
* provinces that are presenting current welfare statistics on their websites.

* AND THEN THERE WERE SIX...
Updated to September 21, 2010
Alberta now has monthly welfare stats on its website!

[ Big deal - so what?? ]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Welfare expenditures

Government transfer payments to persons
On this one table, you'll find the latest five years' worth of information on national expenditures (provincial stats available for a small fee) in the area of transfers to persons, which includes (among other programs):
*
Family and youth allowances * Child tax benefit or credit * Pensions - First and Second World Wars * War veterans' allowances * Grants to aboriginal persons and organizations * Goods and services tax credit * Employment insurance benefits * Old Age Security Fund payments * Provincial Social assistance, income maintenance * Social assistance, other [bolding added] * Workers compensation benefits * Canada and Quebec Pension Plans.
NOTE: In case you're interested in province-level stats, click the "384-0009" link under 'Source' at the bottom of the table. There you can obtain more specialized CANSIM tables, including provincial tables, for a few dollars each. The "Find information related to this table" link (which is also at the bottom of the StatCan table) contains methodological notes and other related StatCan products, many of which are free of charge.
Source:
Statistics Canada


Federal welfare spending factoids:

* In 1995-96, the final year of the Canada Assistance Plan, Ottawa paid out almost $8 Billion under CAP (see note below). [ Source ]
*That's $10.5 Billion in 2010 dollars.
[ Source ]
* Of that amount, the social assistance portion made up about 80-85% - or $8 Billion in 2010 dollars. (see what made up the remaining 15-20%)
[Source: none, except my own recollection of the traditional proportional breakdown of CAP dollars]
* For 2010-11, the Canada Social Transfer (see note below) will reach $11 Billion.
[ Source ]
* Of that amount, the social programs portion is estimated by federal officials to be nearly $6.6 Billion.
[ Source ]
NOTE: Amounts paid out specifically for welfare under the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) cannot be compared with those under the Canada Social Transfer (CST) because the latter is a block fund that also covers provincial-territorial post-secondary education expenditures and early learning and child care. The federal block fund doesn't stipulate how much of the total amount must be allocated to each of those areas, so you'll occasionally find discrepancies between information on welfare expenditures for the same period produced by provincial-territorial governments and reports prepared by federal officials. The proof's in the pudding : in the last factoid above, the statement "the social programs portion is estimated by federal officials to be nearly $6.6 Billion" [bolding added] is a direct quote from the federal Department of Finance (check the source link). Ottawa must resort to "notional allocation of federal support among priority areas" (another quote from the same source) - notional meaning "our best educated guess based on the trends that we monitor" rather than relying on provincial government reports that often allocate amounts differently from the way that the feds do it. And the game of numbers goes on.
Accountability? Transparency? Ha.

Related link from
Finance Canada
:
*
Federal Transfers to Provinces and Territories

- For more on the vagaries of federal contributions to provincial-territorial social programs, see the
Canada Assistance Plan / Canada Health and Social Transfer / Canada Social Transfer Resources page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/cap.htm

------------------------------------------------------

Welfare leavers

British Columbia:

Income Levels of BC Employment and Assistance (BCEA) Clients after They Leave Income Assistance (PDF - 279K, 16 pages)
2009 (PDF file dated April 24/09, 2pm)
The analysis in this report uses tax data from Statistics Canada to examine the income of clients that left assistance and never returned. It is a followup to a previous report, Outcome of those Leaving Assistance, which found that over 80 percent of employable clients who left assistance had employment income.
Specific findings of the report:
· Median total family income of clients, defined as aftertax aftertransfer income including employment income, is higher after clients leave income assistance and increases over time.
· Clients who left income assistance have income significantly higher, in some cases two to three times higher, than they would have receiving income assistance for the entire year.
· Most of the increase is attributable to increases in employment income.
· More...
Source:
Ministry of Housing and Social Development (HSD)
[ Ministry reports ]

Related link from HSD:

Outcomes of Those Leaving Assistance (PDF - 61K, 6 pages)
February 2007
"(...) Since 2002, 88.2% of Expected to Work (ETW) clients who have left assistance and have not returned as of 2005 have employment income, are attending education or have other income in the year following their exit from IA."

Province refused to release report on welfare leavers
By Andrew MacLeod
April 24, 2009
The British Columbia government has suppressed a report on what happens to people who leave the province's welfare system, but now is promising to release it today.
(...) The province has insisted that the rapidly declining welfare caseload has been the result of more people finding employment. Other research, including a landmark study (PDF - 599K, 8 pages) by Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives researchers, and past Tyee coverage, suggests tightening eligibility rules in 2002 played a large role in the decline. A recent report by provincial Ombudsman Kim Carter, Last Resort (PDF - 2.2MB, 132 pages) , noted, “The ministry lacks evidence to support its conclusion that the reduction in the income assistance caseload is a result of people leaving assistance for employment.”
NOTE: The above article was posted in the morning on April and the Ministry posted its report (below) at 2pm (the timestamp on the PDF file).
The Tyee will quite likely have a followup article early in the coming week; check the Tyee home page for updates.
Source:
The Tyee

--------------------------

Social Assistance Use: Trends in incidence, entry and exit rates
August 2004
by R. Sceviour and R. Finnie
"This paper explores the dynamics of Social Assistance use over this period [1995-2000] to calculate annual incidence and entry and exit rates at both the national and provincial level, broken down by family type. These breakdowns, available for the first time ever, are revealing as policy varied by province and family type and not all provinces shared equally in the recession or the expansion that followed it. The paper does not attempt to apportion the movements in SA participation rates between those related to the economy and changes in the administration of welfare. The focus is on the empirical record of SA entry, exit, and annual participation rates.
Source:
Feature Articles [NOTE: check out dozens of links to past feature articles here!]
Canadian Economic Observer
[ Statistics Canada ]

Followup article:

November 17, 2004
Social Assistance by Province, 1993-2003
Feature Article in the November 2004 issue of The Canadian Economic Observer
"Social assistance rates fell in every province between 1993 and 2003, but nowhere was the decline more dramatic than in Alberta and Ontario, according to a new report."

Earlier studies on welfare leavers:

Life after welfare : 1994 to 1999
March 2003
"Family incomes rose for the majority of people who stopped receiving welfare benefits during the 1990s. However, for about one out of every three individuals, family income declined significantly, according to a first-ever national study of the economic outcome for people who left welfare rolls."
The link above takes you to a summary of the report.
Complete report:
Life After Welfare: The Economic Well Being
of Welfare Leavers in Canada during the 1990s
(PDF file - 332K, 32 pages)
Source:
The Daily
[ Statistics Canada ]

Related Links:

After Welfare - Contrasting Studies (British Columbia)
"Statistics Canada has released a study on people who leave welfare that contrasts with the story spun by BC's Minister of Human Resources, Murray Coell. "Life After Welfare: The Economic Well Being of Welfare Leavers in Canada during the 1990s" by Marc Frenette and Garnett Picot provides some fascinating contrasts with Coell's characterization of the 90s and
with what are passing as welfare exit surveys in his ministry."
Source :
Strategic Thoughts

-----------------

Historical welfare program information and statistics


From the
National Council of Welfare (NCW):

Over the years, the Council has produced many reports on poverty and welfare, but there are three that stand out in my mind as milestone reports on the history of welfare in Canada, at least since the 1980s.

1. 1987
Welfare in Canada: The Tangled Safety Net
(PDF - 2.7MB, 131 pages)
November 1987
Tangled Safety Net examines the following issues in Canadian social assistance network of programs:
* Complex rules * Needs-testing * Rates of assistance * Enforcement * Appeals * Recommendations
This report is the first comprehensive national analysis of social assistance programs operated by the provincial, territorial and municipal governments. These programs function as the safety net for Canadians and are better known by their everyday name ‘welfare’.

Version française :
Le bien-être social au Canada : Un filet de sécurité troué (PDF - 3Mo., 138 pages)
Novembre 1987
[ NOTA : Si vous trouvez un lien vers ce fichier en français, veuillez communiquer avec moi pour le partager.
Merci! gilseg@rogers.com ]

____________

2. 1992
Welfare Reform
(PDF - 2.8MB, 61 pages)
Summer 1992
This report is an update of the 1987 Tangled Safety Net, but it presents information by jurisdiction rather than by issue - covers all provinces and territories.

Version française:
Réforme du bien-être social (PDF - 3,5Mo., 63 pages)

____________

3. 1997
Another Look at Welfare Reform
(PDF - 6.75MB, 134 pages)
Autumn 1997
- an in-depth analysis of changes in Canadian welfare programs in the 1990s. The report focuses on the provincial and territorial reforms that preceded the repeal of the Canada Assistance Plan and those that followed the implementation of the Canada Health and Social Transfer in April 1996.
[Proactive disclosure : I did the research for, and wrote the provincial-territorial section of, this report while I was on a one-year secondment to the Council. Gilles ]

Version française:
Un autre regard sur la réforme du bien-être social (PDF - 8Mo., 148 pages)

---

Companion document to
Another Look:

Overview of Provincial (and Territorial)
Welfare Reforms in the 1990s

October 1998
Fifteen pages of research notes used in the production of Another Look at Welfare Reform.
HINT: There's a WEALTH of information on provincial-territorial welfare reforms in these pages that didn't make it to the final report!

-------------------------------------------------

Source:
National Council of Welfare
Established in 1969, the Council is an advisory group to the Minister of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (originally the Minister of Health and Welfare Canada). The mandate of the Council is to advise the Minister regarding any matter relating to social development that the Minister may refer to the Council for its consideration or that the Council considers appropriate.

October 6 (2012)
The National Council of Welfare closed its doors and shut down its website at the end of September 2012.
For more information, see http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/ncw.htm

 



Social Assistance in Canada, 1994

* Also available from the Government of Canada Web Archive:
http://goo.gl/au93G
Over 40 pages of information on Canadian social assistance programs as they operated in 1994. Much of the information in this document is still as relevant today as it was back then - eligibility, benefits, administrative rules, and more. Includes information about cost-sharing of welfare costs under the Canada Assistance Plan. Question-and-answer format for quick reference. This work was part of a larger study of social assistance in 24 countries released by the OECD early in 1996. If you want a snapshot of what welfare was like in Canada before the Canada Health and Social Transfer in 1996, try this one...

NOTE: Social Assistance in Canada, 1994 is the final submission of the Canadian federal government in the context of the 1996 OECD study appearing immediately below. This report is a critical and comparative overview of how social assistance or welfare operated in the mid-1990s in 24 countries (including Canada, with a special focus on Ontario). The chapter on Canada presents a factual snapshot of how welfare was working in Canada just before the 50-50 federal cost-sharing under the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) was replaced by a block fund, the Canada Health and Social Transfer, in April of 1996.

The OECD study consisted of a two-stream approach: for each country involved in the study, an "expert informant" (academic) and a "national government official" received a questionnaire on social assistance programs. The questionnaires were different from one another - federal government officials were asked to provide factual responses to over 70 questions, while the academics' questionnaire focused more on an in-depth critique of those same programs. Social Work Professor Patricia Evans was the Canadian expert informant, and I completed the submission on behalf of the Canadian government, with valuable input and feedback from a number of government colleagues.

Recommended reading!
This is THE most comprehensive historical (mid-1990s) analysis you'll find of welfare in Canada, the United States and 22 other industrialized countries.
Volume I is a synthesis of all country reports - I'd suggest skipping past that one and going directly to Volume II, where you'll find 40 pages of information about Canada and 20 pages about the U.S.
Note that the top link in this yellow box is to the submission of the Canadian federal government in the context of the study.
The Canada chapter of Volume II below is based partly on the Canadian govt. submission and partly on the submission of Professor Evans; for the most complete picture of welfare in Canada in the mid-1990s, I'd recommend checking both SA in Canada and the Canada country report in the box below.


1996 OECD international social assistance study:

- detailed comparison of how social assistance programs operated
in 24 OECD countries, including Canada and the United States (see Volume II)

Social Assistance in OECD Countries
Volume I : Synthesis Report
(PDF - 2.6MB, 207 pages)
A study carried out on behalf of the Department of Social Security and the OECD by the Social Policy Research Unit
1996

---

Social Assistance in OECD Countries
Volume II : Country Reports
(PDF - 4.8MB, 499 pages)

A study carried out on behalf of the Department of Social Security and the OECD by the Social Policy Research Unit
By Tony Eardley, Jonathan Bradshaw, John Ditch, Ian Gough and Peter Whiteford
1996

Participating countries:
* Australia * Greece * Norway * Austria * Iceland * Portugal * Belgium * Ireland * Spain * Canada * Italy * Sweden * Denmark * Japan * Switzerland * Finland * Luxembourg * Turkey * France * Netherlands * United States * Germany * New Zealand * United Kingdom

Source:
United Kingdom
Department for Work and Pensions (DWP)




Social Security Statistics, Canada and Provinces

1978-79 to 2002-03

http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives/20061209234003/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page00.shtml
OR
http://web.archive.org/web/20070814082442/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page00.shtml
OR:
http://goo.gl/B5rgvQ

NOTE: Since January 2012, this report is no longer available on the website of Human Resources and Skills Development (HRSDC) or its successor, Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC). This report and many others were moved to the web archive collection at Library and Archives Canada (LAC).

[By Gilles, March 1, 2014]

-------------------------------------------

This report is a goldmine of statistical information (beneficiary data and expenditure data) on current and defunct Canadian federal social programs, and even some on provincial/territorial programs.

This report offers 25 years of longitudinal data on costs and numbers of beneficiaries for most programs - over 100 tables - covering a large number of programs --- here's a partial list:
- Child Tax Benefit, Family Allowances, the Child Tax Credit, Old Age Security/Guaranteed Income Supplement/Spouse's Allowance ("The Allowance"), Federal Training and Employment Programs, Federal Goods and Services Tax Credit, the Canada/Quebec Pension Plans, War Veterans' and Civilian War Allowances, Veterans' and Civilians' Disability Pensions, Unemployment/Employment Insurance, the Canada Assistance Plan, Workers' Compensation, Youth Allowances, Social Assistance and Social Services for Registered Indians --- and more...

---------------------------

NOTE : All links below are functional.
Click any link and you'll find the desired content on the website of Archive.org

Preface (short blurb only)
http://web.archive.org/web/20070814082442/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page01.shtml

List of Tables
http://web.archive.org/web/20070814082442/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page02.shtml
Read the Introductory notes at the top of the page and in Appendix A:
http://web.archive.org/web/20070814082442/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page03.shtml
of this report for all methodological notes.
"...Tables in this report have been organized into two parts. Part I presents three Overview Tables which illustrate the trends in social security expenditures by all levels of government for Canada. Part II comprises Component Tables which provide data on beneficiaries and expenditures for individual programs."

Overview Tables:
Table 1:
Total Social Security Expenditures in Canada, 1978-79 to 2002-03

http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/table1a.shtml

Table 2:
http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/table2.shtml
Social Security Expenditures by Welfare Program and Total Health and Education Expenditures, Canada, 1978-79 to 2002-03

Table 3
Expenditure Analyses of Social Security Programs, Canada, 1978-79 to 2002-03

http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/table3.shtml

A number of older tables were removed from this edition of the Social Security Statistics report, including some tables with info on Blind Persons' Allowances, Disabled Persons' Allowances and Unemployed Assistance.
Check older editions of this report for those older stats:
http://web.archive.org/web/20090219214655/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/publications_resources/statistics/index.shtml

Many of the tables are historical and likely of little interest except to historians and CAP-o-philes --- they offer historical caseload and expenditure statistics on each of the CAP cost-sharing components (General Assistance - Homes for Special Care for Children and Adults - Child Welfare - Health Care - Other Welfare Services and Work Activity).

Scroll down the list of tables
[ http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page02.shtml ]
... to find a particular program, then click on its name to access the HTML version of the table (the HTML page includes links to the PDF and Excel versions of the table).

You'll find many key stats tables and some interesting analyses here - only a few of which appear below
- includes links to over two dozen tables (Tables 352-911) with info on federal contributions under the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) and the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST) to the cost of provincial and territorial welfare programs.
NOTE: for more info about CAP, the CHST and the Canada Social Transfer (CST, which replaced the CHST in April 2004), see the Canada Assistance Plan / Canada Health and Social Transfer / Canada Social Transfer Resources page of this site:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/cap.htm

A few sample tables:

Table 360
Total Federal-Provincial Cost-Shared Program Expenditures, 1978-79 to 1999-2000
http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab360.shtml
NOTE: Table 360 traces the evolution/devolution of transfers under the Canada Assistance Plan (in dollars) from 1976 to 1999. No new claims were paid out under CAP after the Canada Health and Social Transfer came into effect in April 1996; amounts shown as CAP expenditures for the fiscal years after 1995-96 are final settlements with each jurisdiction for all outstanding commitments by the federal government.

Table 361
Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) - Number of Beneficiaries of General Assistance (including dependants), as of March 31, 1979 to 1996

http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab361.shtml
- This is a key table for research on welfare programs - welfare dependency statistics by jurisdiction over the years. These are the final, definitive numbers.

Table 362
Total Federal-Provincial Cost-Shared Expenditures for General Assistance, by Province/Territory, 1978-79 to 1995-96

http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab362.shtml
- this table should be of special interest for welfare historians and number-crunchers - it shows exactly when Canadian government spending on welfare (by the federal and provincial/territorial governments) started looking a little fuzzier. When the feds imposed the cap on CAP (max. 5% annual increase in total CAP payments) in Ontario, Alberta and BC in the early 1990s, those three provinces stopped reporting how much of their CAP dollars were going to welfare (vs. other CAP components covered under the same federal contribution). Table 362 shows that as of 1991-92, the federal contribution to those three provinces for General Assistance appears as "n/a" - so it's been impossible to produce a national figure since then. Unless, of course, one wanders over into the minefield of provincial government welfare statistics, where welfare programs (and related expenditures) have undergone a major transformation. If you *do* want to check out welfare stats for each Canadian jurisdiction, your best starting point is the Key Welfare Links Page of this website - http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/welfare.htm - which includes links to welfare stats in each province and territory where they're available.

Table 434
Total Federal Payments under CAP, 1978-79 to 1999-2000

http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab434.shtml
[The note under table 360 also applies to this table. ]

Table 435
Number of Beneficiaries (including dependants) of Provincial and Municipal Social Assistance, as of March 31, 1997 to 2003
http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab435.shtml

Table 438
Provincial and Municipal Social Assistance Program Expenditures, 1980-81 to 2002-03
http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab438.shtml

Table 526
Provincial and Territorial Children's Benefits and Earned Income Supplements, Expenditures for Fiscal years 1978-79 to 2002-03
http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab526.shtml

Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/home.shtml
Dept. name changed to Employment and Social Development Canada

Archive source:
Archive.org
https://archive.org/

Official Source:
Collections Canada
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/
[Library and Archives Canada]


January 27, 2012
Brickbats and Kudos:

Brickbats to Human Resources and Skills Development Canada!

During the 1990s, five separate editions of Social Security Statistics, Canada and Provinces - a valuable statistical report for social researchers of every stripe - were posted to the website of the Department that is currently (01/2012) known as Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC). Each edition contains 25 years of stats on Canadian social programs, and each edition adds a few years' stats but it also drops the oldest stats. For the most complete set of statistics - covering fiscal years 1970-71 to 2002-2003 - researchers had to download both the oldest edition (1970-71 to 1994-95) and the most recent (1978-79 to 2002-2003). In late 2011, HRSDC did a cleanup of its website, which included deleting not one or two but all five editions of Social Security Statistics, along with a few other historical gems. Evidently, there was no historian among the group that decided to remove this report from the site.
Boooooo.

Kudos to the Government of Canada Web Archive!

The Government of Canada Web Archive
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives/index-e.html
Since the Fall of 2007, Library and Archives Canada has been harvesting the web domain of the Federal Government of Canada (starting in December 2005). Client access to the content of the Government of Canada Web Archive is provided through searching by keyword, by department name, and by URL. The archive currently contains over 170 million digital objects and more than 7 terabytes of data.
Source:
Library and Archives Canada

http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/index-e.html
Comment (by Gilles):
The Government of Canada Web Archive is a handy tool to track down website content that's been deleted from the Internet, but only for federal government site content and only back to December 2005. It was relatively simple for me to find an old version of the HRSDC website and to drill down to the Social Policy reports, including five complete editions of Social Security Statistics covering the period from 1970-71 to 2002-2003.

Social Policy Reports (this link is from the Govt. of Canada Web Archive)
http://goo.gl/5MLk0
This is how the Social Policy Reports page looked before it was "cleaned up" in December 2011.
It includes functional links to the full text of five editions of Social Security Statistics, Canada and Provinces and many other historical treasures that no longer appear on the HRSDC reports page.

See also:

Publications Canada
http://publications.gc.ca/
The federal government's Depository Services Program (DSP) and Publications websites have been integrated into a single searchable, browseable database of federal government publications. The website of the Depository Services Program was officially decommissioned on December 8, 2011.

NOTE:
If you're searching for "older" (pre-December 2005) deleted website content o
r for any content that's not from a federal govt. site, try the Wayback Machine (Internet Archive):
http://www.archive.org/web/web.php
Copy and paste a URL into the search box on the Wayback Machine home page and click "Take Me Back".
The Results page consists of a calendar where you can retrieve earlier versions of that page by clicking on any date that's in a blue circle.

 

-----------------

See also:

Historical Statistics of Canada (2nd edition, 1983)
Jointly produced by the Social Science Federation of Canada and Statistics Canada
Go to the home page and browse the table of contents of this excellent historical resource. Tables are arranged in sections with an introduction explaining the content of each section, the principal sources of data for each table, and general explanatory notes regarding the statistics. This online statistical collection complements and expands on Human Resources Development Canada's Social Security Statistics, Canada and Provinces report.
Source:
Statistics Canada

Historical Statistics of Canada contains links to over 1,000 statistical tables (downloadable in Excel format) on the social, economic and institutional conditions of Canada from the start of the Confederation in 1867 to the mid-1970s. It's worth downloading the free Excel Spreadsheet File Viewer from Microsoft if you don't have Excel software on your machine.

Here's a sample section:

Section C: Social Security - by T. Russell Robinson, Health and Welfare Canada
Contains seven pages of historical information on the evolution of Canadian social programs, plus links to over 180 tables organized under the following headings: Federal Income Security Programs - Federal and Provincial Income Insurance Programs - Cost-shared Federal-Provincial Income Security Programs - Federal and Provincial Social Service Programs - Provincial-Municipal Income Security Programs - Government Expenditures on Social Security by Broad Program Areas. Unfortunately, the section on the Canada Assistance Plan provides stats only from 1970 to 1975, but you'll find other historical gems here, like federal transfers to the provinces and territories, 1947 to 1975, Unemployment insurance account, 1942 to 1976, Old Age Pensions recipients for Canada and by province, March 1928 to 1951, and much more...

Great collection of historical Canadian social program stats!

-----------------

- See the Canadian Social Research Links Social Statistics page for more statistical links.

-----------------


Success of Canadian Welfare Reforms


Welfare dependency in Canada peaked in March 1994, when 3.1 million Canadians were receiving welfare.

From March 1995 to March 2005, the number of welfare beneficiaries (including children) across Canada decreased from just over three million to 1,7 million.
[Source: National Council of Welfare statistics, 1995-2005(PDF - 137K, 1 page)]

So Canadian welfare reforms have been successful, right?

It depends on whether you're asking the Finance Department and Fraser Institute types, who interpret reductions in welfare caseloads and program costs as significant measures of success, or the social advocacy groups, who focus more on the human condition, income and wealth inequality and social justice...

Related Links:
(the view from the other side...)

* Campaign 2000
- child poverty report cards for Canada and selected provinces

* National Council of Welfare (de-funded by the Harper Government in the 2012 federal budget, closed its doors in the fall of 2012)
- authoritative source of reports and statistics on poverty and welfare in Canada

* Canada Without Poverty
- formerly the National Anti-Poverty Organization (NAPO)

* Citizens for Public Justice
- faith-based NGO promoting a guaranteed annual income in Canada

* Dignity for All
- the campaign for a poverty free Canada

-----------------------------------------

Welfare reform in the U.S. - success or flop?

I thought I'd share the following excerpt from one of the presentations at the August 2008 Queen's University poverty agenda conference. It's a commentary on the relative success of American welfare reforms since Bill Clinton declared "the end of welfare as we know it" in the mid-1990s, but it reflects the view of many social advocates about the impact of welfare reforms in Canada since 1996.


"Both the Democrats and Republicans seek to take credit for the “success” of welfare reform. But the reduction of the rolls is a misleading indicator. Many potential recipients do not come onto the rolls even though they need assistance. The punitive approach has made welfare harder to access and less appealing as well. Further those who leave welfare for work on average make only about $7.50/hour in jobs that offer no medical insurance or pensions whatsoever. Many recipients remain poor years after leaving the rolls. The “welfare poor” are simply being replaced by the “working poor” in the new regime."

Source:
Neoliberal Poverty Governance: U.S. Welfare Policy in an Era of Globalization [dead link]
Presentation by Sanford F. Schram
Bryn Mawr College
Presentation at “The New Poverty Agenda: Reshaping Policies in the 21st Century”
Queen's University, International Institute on Social Policy
Kingston, Ontario, August 18-20, 2008

 

----------------------------------------------

Government expenditures on major social programs

Government transfer payments to persons
On this one table, you'll find the latest five years' worth of information on national expenditures (provincial stats available for a small fee) in the area of transfers to persons, which includes (among other programs):
*
Family and youth allowances * Child tax benefit or credit * Pensions - First and Second World Wars * War veterans' allowances * Grants to aboriginal persons and organizations * Goods and services tax credit * Employment insurance benefits * Old Age Security Fund payments * Provincial Social assistance, income maintenance * Social assistance, other * Workers compensation benefits * Canada and Quebec Pension Plans.
NOTE: In case you're interested in province-level stats, click the "384-0009" link under 'Source' at the bottom of the table. There you can obtain more specialized CANSIM tables, including provincial tables, for a few dollars each. The "Find information related to this table" link (which is also at the bottom of the StatCan table) contains methodological notes and other related StatCan products, many of which are free of charge.
Source:

Statistics Canada

Legislation

Legislation woes?
It's very frustrating trying to keep up with legislative links in each jurisdiction - they keep changing the legislation, and they keep changing the links to that legislation.
If you can't find statutes and regulations for a specific Canadian jurisdiction, try searching the BEST source (IMHO) for legislation and regulations:

Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLII)
Funded by Canada’s lawyers and notaries for the benefit of all, CanLII provides free access to legal information
Browse by jurisdiction for links to federal, provincial and territorial courts (incl. supreme courts), as well as statutes and regulations.

More about CanLII

See the Canadian Social Research Links Legislation Links page for links to other related sites.

Other Welfare Resources

You'll find a lot more welfare-related information on other Canadian Social Research Links pages. The most detailed information is in the provincial/territorial section (left column) of this site's Home Page - hundreds of government and NGO links, including reports and studies on many aspects of welfare in Canada. NGO links are either at the bottom of the government links for each jurisdiction or on a separate page (depending on the number of links for each jurisdiction).

For information on conditions of eligibility (including the financial nitty-gritty), administration (fraud controls, application review process) and benefit calculations, I'd recommend Provincial/Territorial Welfare Policy Manuals. Not all jurisdictions are online yet, and the amount and quality of content vary.

Related pages on this site:
* Anti-Poverty Strategies and Campaigns:
--- Provincial and territorial
--- National and international

* Welfare Reforms in Canada*
* Canada Assistance Plan / Canada Health and Social Transfer / Canada Social Transfer Resources*
*includes some content based on my experience as well as links to relevant sites and reports.

The "themes" section of this site (right column on the Home Page) - also includes more links to welfare information. The content of those pages is more chaotic than the government section, but I guarantee you'll find welfare links on every one of those pages.

---

From the
Canadian Council on Social Development:

Poverty Reduction Policies and Programs
Social Development Report Series, 2009
Series Editor: Katherine Scott
May 2009
Fourteen authors discuss the ideas, interests and institutions that have shaped the evolution of poverty reduction policies and programs in Canada and the issues for each jurisdiction moving forward.

Recommended reading - includes detailed historical and contextual information on welfare and poverty reduction in each province and territory, along with an overview of the federal role in and contributions toward poverty reduction in Canada. For links to all reports, click the link above or go to the Anti-Poverty Strategies and Campaigns page of this website, where you'll find links to all 14 reports in this series + 900 more links to online content related to poverty reduction in Canada.

Source:
Canadian Council on Social Development

Related links:
- Go to the Anti-poverty Strategies and Campaigns page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/antipoverty.htm


Jack Layton



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