Canadian Social Research Links

History of Welfare in Canada
Selected readings

Updated May 15, 2016
Page révisée le 15 mai 2016

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The following list of links is not in any particular order.
It's a collection of resources from a number of Canadian Social Research Links pages. I thought it would be helpful to have a central location for all of these texts.
Gilles

Related pages on this site:

- Go to the Canada Assistance Plan / Canada Health and Social Transfer / Canada Social Transfer Resources page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/cap.htm

- Go to the Welfare and Welfare Reforms in Canada page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/welref.htm


WELFARE IN CANADA 101

If you're not sure how welfare works in Canada, I highly recommend the following resource:

Social Assistance in Canada: An Overview * (7 pages)
*This is the second chapter of:

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2008
July 2011
Produced by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Directors of Income Support
This report includes a description of, and statistics related to, the welfare system in each province and territory, information about federal-provincial-territorial jurisdictional and funding issues, a bit of historical info on the Canada Assistance Plan and the Canada Health and Social Transfer, etc.

Source:
[ Human Resources and Skills Development Canada ]


Social Assistance and Related Programs, 1994
http://canadiansocialresearch.net/SARP/toc.htm
Social Assistance and Related Programs ("SARP") was a hundred-plus-page working document produced by a team of six people at Health & Welfare Canada for the mid-1970s federal-provincial review of income maintenance programs in Canada. I was the sole person responsible for maintaining and updating the original report over the years from 1976 until 1994, when it was "retired" due to shifting government priorities.

Originally entitled "A Comparison of Provincial Social Assistance Programs", the report compared social assistance terms and conditions province by province, using a template of questions submitted by the federal and provincial deputy ministers (DMs) responsible for social assistance across Canada in the early 1970s.

All of the information in the original version of this report was vetted by provincial and territorial social assistance authorities. Subsequent updates were vetted by a "Comparison" contact person in each jurisdiction for accuracy.

The Deputy Ministers also asked that the "Comparison" be maintained (by H&W Canada) on an ongoing basis and regularly disseminated to them to alert them to best practices in social assistance administration across the country.

I was already an employee of H&W Canada when I was offered the opportunity of maintaining and distributing the SARP report, and I accepted the offer. I was the sole project resource from the time I started on the project in 1976 until 1995, when the report was quietly shelved, because of waning interest by senior department people. Some white haired researchers out there will recall that 1995 was the year that the federal budget announced the end of 50% cost-sharing of approved provincial/territorial welfare expenditures under the Canada Assistance Plan, and the planned implementation of the Canada Health and Social Transfer in April of 1996.

By the time the SARP report was retired in 1994-95, the mailing list had grown from a dozen federal and provincial Deputy Ministers to over 300 federal and provincial government officials involved either in the social assistance area or a related area. As I found out when I did an informal phone survey, those 300 government officials used SARP to monitor each other's social assistance and related programs, specifically the terms and conditions relating to eligibility and benefit levels, in setting their own benefit levels and emulating best practices from other jurisdictions. The demise of SARP meant the disappearance of those monitoring functions on a national scale.

The report content had also grown significantly from '76 to '95 --- from just over 100 pages to almost 500 pages, covering a wide range of provincial social assistance terms and conditions.

This report has been sitting on my computer's hard drive since 2003, when I retired from the federal civil service. I'd attempted to make this available beforehand, but converting files that were created in the last millennium ago (lol) presented all kinds of challenges. The final product is a bit rough around the edges in spots, especially when the content is in tabular form.

If you encounter any navigational issues or errors, or if you have related questions, you can reach me at gilseg@rogers.com


Working Paper on Social Security in Canada [PDF]
April 1973 (PDF - 3.6MB, 57 pages)
Also known as the Orange Paper (because of the colour of its cover)
or the Lalonde Paper (after Marc Lalonde , then-Minister of Finance)

Excerpt from the Preface:

This Working Paper has been prepared for the Government of Canada's contribution to the launching of this review (...) which would embrace not only what each individual federal and provincial government is doing in the field of income security, but also what governments together are doing. In November 1972, the provincial Ministers of Welfare called for a federal-provincial conference before the spring of 1973 to establish better mechanisms for consultation on social security programmes. And in January 1973, the Government of Canada called for a joint federal-provincial review of "Canada's total social security system", beginning in April 1973.
This working paper has been prepared as the Government of Canada's contribution to the launching of this r
eview.

Major Changes in Social Assistance Programs
from January 1993 to September 1994

(14 pages if printed)

The 1994 Social Security Review
http://canadiansocialresearch.net/welfare_history.htm#ssr
In 1994, the federal government launched a national Social Security Review (SSR). A number of papers were released before the review wound down after the 1995 federal budget. If you go to a municipal or university library, you should be able to find a collection comprising a discussion paper and about five or six supplementary papers released in the months that followed. These supplementary papers offer a wealth of information on unemployment/employment insurance reform, employability in the 90s, families and children, persons with disabilities, and other topics.
Click the link above to access the main discussion paper and four of the supplementary papers.

Dismantling Social Welfare:
Chronology of federal govt. cutbacks, 1985-1995
(PDF - 364K, 4 pages)
http://www.sfu.ca/~mcohen/publications/Polecon/dismantl.pdf
November 1995
By Marjorie Griffin Cohen with Judy Morrison and Darcian Smith
The following is a list of the changes our federal government introduced since 1985, which have made the tax system more favourable to the wealthy; cut government programs and employment; and increased the power of the private sector by privatizing social and economic activities. The first term of the Mulroney government began the process of deconstructing Canada's social welfare systems, a process which was accelerated dramatically after their 1988 re-election. The election of a Liberal government in 1993, despite its election promises, did not change the downward plunge. The 1995 budget indicated the determination of the federal government to speed up the move toward minimalist government.

Marjorie Griffin Cohen teaches political science at Simon Fraser University in B.C.
Judy Morrison and Darcian smith are Research Assistants.

Source:
CCPA Monitor, November 1995
Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives
https://www.policyalternatives.ca/

NOTE : The above article was written for the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives' CCPA Monitor, but it no longer appears on the CCPA website. The file was found on Marjorie Griffin Cohen's web page [ http://www.sfu.ca/~mcohen/ ] on the Simon Fraser University website [ http://www.sfu.ca/ ].

Federal [social spending] Caps and Cuts, 1972-1995
- excerpt from a report by the Parliamentary Library:
"(...) the federal government has, since at least the mid-seventies, been engaged in what has been widely portrayed as a retreat from the social policy role established during the immediate post-war period."
- incl. major milestones

Caledon Institute of Social Policy
http://www.caledoninst.org/
Established in 1992, the Caledon Institute of Social Policy is a private, nonprofit organization with charitable status. Caledon is an independent and critical voice that does not depend on government funding and is not affiliated with any political party.

---

Selected Caledon reports:

The Case for a Canada Social Report (PDF - 64K, 14 pages)
http://www.caledoninst.org/Publications/PDF/1011ENG.pdf
By Ken Battle and Sherri Torjman
May 2013
The demise of the National Council of Welfare, announced in the 2012 Budget, would have punched a huge hole in Canada’s social policy database. The Council’s annual Welfare Incomes and Poverty Profile reports had for decades provided invaluable information on welfare and low income.

Rather than simply lamenting this potential loss, the Caledon Institute of Social Policy is acting to rescue this important data by taking over its preparation and distribution. The welfare and poverty information will form part of a new Canada Social Report that will provide data and information on social programs and related tax benefits in Canada. The Report will not only collect key program and socioeconomic statistics, but also undertake analyses that help explain the shape and implications of identified trends. It will track and document major developments in social policy in a wide range of domains.

The first product of the Canada Social Report is already available, in the form of Caledon’s online Policy Monitor [ http://www.caledoninst.org/Policy/ ] which tracks developments in federal and provincial/territorial social programs. The range will expand to include social policy developments at the municipal level. During the rest of this year, the Canada Social Report will update the welfare incomes and poverty trends, and will prepare a study on minimum wages. The project will grow over time, housed at Caledon but encouraging inputs from other organizations with an interest in social policy.

Sample issues of the federal policy monitor
and the provincial-territorial policy monitors:

* Federal Policy Monitor May 2013 (PDF - 32K, 3 pages)
http://www.caledoninst.org/Policy/Federal/2013-05.pdf
- includes news items (and related links) on the following topics:
Aboriginals - Families - Governance - Health - Housing - Income Security - Seniors

Provincial/Territorial Policy Monitor May 2013 (PDF - 80K, 6 pages)
http://www.caledoninst.org/Policy/Provincial/2013-05.pdf

Source:
Federal Policy Monitor
http://www.caledoninst.org/Policy/
[*NOTE : For links to the provincial/territorial monitor, scroll down the page.]
The Caledon Institute regularly scans for the release of federal government policies that impact areas of interest, including income security, disabilities, health, housing, poverty reduction, recreation, seniors and youth. Both the federal and provincial/territorial Monitors are now searchable by date, jurisdiction and category.

Caledon's Publications list
http://www.caledoninst.org/Publications/Search/By%20Date/
ATTENTION WELFARE HISTORIANS: This link will give you access to hundreds of Caledon reports, commentaries, literature reviews, papers, etc., going all the way back to 1993. This collection includes invaluable historical information on a wide range of topics, including the transition from the Canada Assistance Plan to the Canada Health and Social Transfer, Ontario's workfare experiment under Mike Harris, disability issues, education, taxation, social policy and the federal government, and much more.
Recommended resource!

Guide to the Guaranteed Annual Income (39 pages)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/116964639/guide-to-the-guaranteed-income
January 1976
- includes Negative Income Tax (Theoretical model), Support/Supplementation (proposed programs) and a history of the mid-1970s Social Security Review (1973 to 1975)

Source:
National Council of Welfare (NCW)
[ For more information about the Council, see
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/gai.htm ]

From The Canadian Encyclopedia:
[The two authors are (were?) university social work profs. For links to more info about them and their other published works, do a Google search on one or both names.

Welfare State
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/welfare-state
By Allan Moscovitch
Contents of this five-page article:
* Social Welfare and Social Philosophy
* Development of a Welfare State in Canada
* The Interventionist Phase: 1941-1974
* The Fourth Phase: Erosion and the Future of Welfare, 1975
Suggested Reading
Links to Other Sites

Also from
The Canadian Encyclopedia:

Social Security
- from the Colonial Era to the demise of the Canada Assistance Plan in the mid-1990s
By Dennis Guest
Social security denotes public programs intended to maintain, protect and raise basic living standards. Specifically the term covers publicly financed and administered programs that replace income that has been lost because of pregnancy, illness, accident, disability, the death or absence of a family's breadwinner, unemployment, old age or retirement, or other factors.
- incl. links to:
* The History of Social Security in Canada * Renewing Canada's Social Programs * Suggested Reading * Links to Other Sites

Source:
The Canadian Encyclopedia
The full text of The Canadian Encyclopedia and its related resources has been made available online by the Historica Foundation as a public service since 1999. Since its publication in book form in 1985, The Canadian Encyclopedia has provided the most comprehensive, objective and accurate source of information on Canada for students, readers and scholars across Canada and throughout the world.

The Canada Social Transfer and the Deconstruction of
Pan-Canadian Social Policy
By Donna E. Wood, University of Victoria
March 2013

Complete report (PDF - 732K, 37 pages)
(See table of contents below)
http://www.vibrantcalgary.com/uploads/pdfs/Canada_social_transfer_Wood_full.pdf

Brief version (PDF - 84K, 3 pages)
http://www.vibrantcalgary.com/uploads/pdfs/Canada_social_transfer_Wood_brief.pdf

Table of Contents:
Intro
Part 1 : Building Canada’s welfare state
--- Social assistance,welfare services and the Canada Assistance Plan
--- Postsecondary education and Established Programs Finance
Part 2 : Federal retrenchment and reinvestment
---Re-investments in health care
--- Re-investmentsin welfare services and postsecondary education
--- The split into the Canada Health Transfer and the Canada Social Transfer
Part 3 : The fall out
--- Social assistance
--- Social services and children’s programming
--- Postsecondary education
Part 4 : Who speaks for the Canada Social Transfer?
--- Social development interests
--- Postsecondary education interests
--- Other interests
--- Interests of federal, provincial and territorial governments
Part 5 : So what does this all mean?
--- Does a dedicated federal social transfer still matter?
--- Should the Canada Social Transfer be formally split?
--- Could national standards or conditions be established?
Part 6 : Contemporary challenges in federal-provincial relations
Conclusion
References

Source:
Vibrant Communities Calgary
http://www.vibrantcalgary.com/
Vibrant Communities Calgary is a non-profit organization that works collaboratively, with various stakeholders and partners, seeking to engage Calgarians and to advocate for long-term strategies that address the root causes of poverty in Calgary.

Related link:

Action to End Poverty in Alberta
http://www.actiontoendpovertyinalberta.org/
Action to End Poverty in Alberta is a non-profit initiative that works collaboratively with all levels of government, the community and with people experiencing poverty, to help develop and implement a comprehensive strategy and action plan to end poverty in Alberta.

Canada Social Transfer Project : Accountability Matters
Canadian Association of Social Workers
March 2012

First, some context:

The Canada Social Transfer (CST) is the primary source of federal funding in Canada that supports provincial and territorial social programs, specifically, post secondary education, social assistance, social services, and programs for children. In 2007, legislated funding for the CST was extended to 2013-2014, putting it on the same long-term predictable legislative track as the Canada Health Transfer (CHT). As both 2014 and the review of the CHT and CST are fast approaching, conversations have begun at the federal level about the Canada Health Transfer. The Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW), a national organization that has adopted a pro-active approach to addressing issues pertinent to social policy and social work practice in Canada, calls for a similar approach of review of the Canada Social Transfer (CST) to be undertaken at the federal level.
(...)
While the Canada Health Transfer is attached to a set of conditions through the Canada Health Act, the Canada Social Transfer is a largely unconditional transfer, a fact that has come into question over time by scholars, policy-makers and activists.
[Source: Excerpt from report background, p.6]

Canadian Association of Social Workers Report on Social Transfer
http://casw-acts.ca/en/canadian-association-social-workers-report-social-transfer
News Release
March 19, 2012
The Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW) today issued a comprehensive report aimed at bringing attention to the lack of accountability inherent in the receipt and delivery of the Canadian Social Transfer. Entitled Canada Social Transfer Project - Accountability Matters, the Report outlines recommendations on renewing accountability for the billions transferred annually from the federal to provincial governments in support of social services, childcare and post-secondary education.

Complete report:

Canada Social Transfer Project:
Accountability Matters
(PDF - 440K, 79 pages)
http://goo.gl/1Y02M

---
Version française:
Étude sur le Transfert canadien en matière de programmes sociaux :
La reddition de compte, c'est important
(PDF - 536K, 82 pages)
http://goo.gl/2ZuWE
---

Selected contents:

* Background to the Project
* Importance of Social Programs in Canada
* Financing of Social Services in Canada : Cost-Sharing & Block Funding
* Federal and Provincial/Territorial Relations
* Jurisdictional Landscape of Social Service Delivery:Past and Present
* Social Union Framework Agreement
* Changing Funding Models and Commitments
* Changes in Roles and Relationships
* Issues with the Current Canada Social Transfer : Accountability Issues - Role and Relationship Issues - Financing Issues
* Transfers and Social Citizenship Rights
* Potential Future Roles for Federal Government
* Key Informant Interview Findings (Current Approach to the CST - Federal and Provincial Roles - Attaching Conditionality to the CST - more...
* Recommended Federal, Provincial, Territorial Leadership and Collaboration
* Action Plan for Moving Forward on Recommendations

Source:
Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW)

http://casw-acts.ca/

- Go to the Canada Assistance Plan / Canada Health and Social Transfer / Canada Social Transfer Resources page:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/cap.htm

The Canada Social Transfer: Retrospect and Prospect (Word 2007 file - 242K, 15 pages)
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net//CST_2011.docx
By James Gauthier
14 July 2011
The structure of major federal transfers for provincial/territorial social programs has undergone significant changes over the years, primarily in response to the desire among provincial/territorial governments for greater flexibility and federal concerns over rising costs. This paper provides an overview of how federal support for social programs is provided to provinces and territories today through the CST, and how this fiscal arrangement has evolved over time, including its associated accountability mechanisms. The paper concludes with a presentation of some likely key issues for renewal of the CST, along with a description of the process of FPT negotiations for major federal transfers, as well as an example of a more targeted federal transfer to provinces and territories in support of housing and homelessness.

Source:
Library of Parliament Research Publications
http://www.parl.gc.ca/About/Library/VirtualLibrary/ResearchPublications-E.asp



Social Security Statistics, Canada and Provinces

1978-79 to 2002-03

http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives/20061209234003/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page00.shtml
OR
http://web.archive.org/web/20070814082442/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page00.shtml
OR:
http://goo.gl/B5rgvQ

NOTE: Since January 2012, this report is no longer available on the website of Human Resources and Skills Development (HRSDC) or its successor, Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC). This report and many others were moved to the web archive collection at Library and Archives Canada (LAC).

[By Gilles, March 1, 2014]

-------------------------------------------

This report is a goldmine of statistical information (beneficiary data and expenditure data) on current and defunct Canadian federal social programs, and even some on provincial/territorial programs.

This report offers 25 years of longitudinal data on costs and numbers of beneficiaries for most programs - over 100 tables - covering a large number of programs --- here's a partial list:
- Child Tax Benefit, Family Allowances, the Child Tax Credit, Old Age Security/Guaranteed Income Supplement/Spouse's Allowance ("The Allowance"), Federal Training and Employment Programs, Federal Goods and Services Tax Credit, the Canada/Quebec Pension Plans, War Veterans' and Civilian War Allowances, Veterans' and Civilians' Disability Pensions, Unemployment/Employment Insurance, the Canada Assistance Plan, Workers' Compensation, Youth Allowances, Social Assistance and Social Services for Registered Indians --- and more...

---------------------------

NOTE : All links below are functional.
Click any link and you'll find the desired content on the website of Archive.org

Preface (short blurb only)
http://web.archive.org/web/20070814082442/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page01.shtml

List of Tables
http://web.archive.org/web/20070814082442/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page02.shtml
Read the Introductory notes at the top of the page and in Appendix A:
http://web.archive.org/web/20070814082442/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page03.shtml
of this report for all methodological notes.
"...Tables in this report have been organized into two parts. Part I presents three Overview Tables which illustrate the trends in social security expenditures by all levels of government for Canada. Part II comprises Component Tables which provide data on beneficiaries and expenditures for individual programs."

Overview Tables:

Table 1:
Total Social Security Expenditures in Canada, 1978-79 to 2002-03

http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives/20061210200240/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/table1a.shtml

Table 2: Social Security Expenditures by Welfare Program and Total Health and Education Expenditures, Canada, 1978-79 to 2002-03
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives/20061210200142/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/table2.shtml

Table 3
Expenditure Analyses of Social Security Programs, Canada, 1978-79 to 2002-03
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives/20061210200026/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/table3.shtml

A number of older tables were removed from this edition of the Social Security Statistics report, including some tables with info on Blind Persons' Allowances, Disabled Persons' Allowances and Unemployed Assistance.
Check older editions of this report for those older stats:
http://web.archive.org/web/20090219214655/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/publications_resources/statistics/index.shtml

Many of the tables are historical and likely of little interest except to historians and CAP-o-philes --- they offer historical caseload and expenditure statistics on each of the CAP cost-sharing components (General Assistance - Homes for Special Care for Children and Adults - Child Welfare - Health Care - Other Welfare Services and Work Activity).

Scroll down the list of tables
[ http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/page02.shtml ]
... to find a particular program, then click on its name to access the HTML version of the table (the HTML page includes links to the PDF and Excel versions of the table).

You'll find many key stats tables and some interesting analyses here - only a few of which appear below
- includes links to over two dozen tables (Tables 352-911) with info on federal contributions under the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) and the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST) to the cost of provincial and territorial welfare programs.
NOTE: for more info about CAP, the CHST and the Canada Social Transfer (CST, which replaced the CHST in April 2004), see the Canada Assistance Plan / Canada Health and Social Transfer / Canada Social Transfer Resources page of this site:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/cap.htm

A few sample tables:

Table 360
Total Federal-Provincial Cost-Shared Program Expenditures, 1978-79 to 1999-2000
http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab360.shtml
NOTE: Table 360 traces the evolution/devolution of transfers under the Canada Assistance Plan (in dollars) from 1976 to 1999. No new claims were paid out under CAP after the Canada Health and Social Transfer came into effect in April 1996; amounts shown as CAP expenditures for the fiscal years after 1995-96 are final settlements with each jurisdiction for all outstanding commitments by the federal government.

Table 361
Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) - Number of Beneficiaries of General Assistance (including dependants), as of March 31, 1979 to 1996

http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab361.shtml
- This is a key table for research on welfare programs - welfare dependency statistics by jurisdiction over the years. These are the final, definitive numbers.

Table 362
Total Federal-Provincial Cost-Shared Expenditures for General Assistance, by Province/Territory, 1978-79 to 1995-96

http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab362.shtml
- this table should be of special interest for welfare historians and number-crunchers - it shows exactly when Canadian government spending on welfare (by the federal and provincial/territorial governments) started looking a little fuzzier. When the feds imposed the cap on CAP (max. 5% annual increase in total CAP payments) in Ontario, Alberta and BC in the early 1990s, those three provinces stopped reporting how much of their CAP dollars were going to welfare (vs. other CAP components covered under the same federal contribution). Table 362 shows that as of 1991-92, the federal contribution to those three provinces for General Assistance appears as "n/a" - so it's been impossible to produce a national figure since then. Unless, of course, one wanders over into the minefield of provincial government welfare statistics, where welfare programs (and related expenditures) have undergone a major transformation. If you *do* want to check out welfare stats for each Canadian jurisdiction, your best starting point is the Key Welfare Links Page of this website - http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/welfare.htm - which includes links to welfare stats in each province and territory where they're available.

Table 434
Total Federal Payments under CAP, 1978-79 to 1999-2000

http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab434.shtml
[The note under table 360 also applies to this table. ]

Table 435
Number of Beneficiaries (including dependants) of Provincial and Municipal Social Assistance, as of March 31, 1997 to 2003
http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab435.shtml

Table 438
Provincial and Municipal Social Assistance Program Expenditures, 1980-81 to 2002-03
http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab438.shtml

Table 526
Provincial and Territorial Children's Benefits and Earned Income Supplements, Expenditures for Fiscal years 1978-79 to 2002-03
http://web.archive.org/web/20070630131119/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/tables/pre/tab526.shtml

Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/home.shtml
Dept. name changed to Employment and Social Development Canada

Archive source:
Archive.org
https://archive.org/

Official Source:
Collections Canada --- BROKEN LINK!
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/
[Library and Archives Canada]


From Mothers' Allowance to Mothers Need Not Apply:
Canadian Welfare Laws as Liberal and Neo-Liberal Reforms
(PDF - 240K, 39 pages)
http://ohlj.ca/english/documents/02GaviganChunnafterSS.pdf
April 2008
By Shelley Gavigan and Dorothy Chunn
In this paper we examine changes in the form and content of Canadian welfare law through a historical, feminist lens using the exemplar of mother-headed families. Our analysis of how the state dealt with sole support mothers in several provinces throughout the twentieth century reveals important continuities, as well as discontinuities, between the past and the present that have shaped and reshaped the lives and experiences of poor women and their children.
Source:
Osgoode Hall Law Journal (Vol. 45 No. 4)
http://www.ohlj.ca/

Journal Current Issue + Archives
http://www.ohlj.ca/english/current.htm

The 1994 Social Security Review

In 1994, the federal government launched a national Social Security Review (SSR). A number of papers were released before the review wound down after the 1995 federal budget. If you go to a municipal or university library, you should be able to find a collection comprising a discussion paper and about five or six supplementary papers released in the months that followed.  These supplementary papers offer a wealth of information on unemployment/employment insurance reform, employability in the 90s, families and children, persons with disabilities, and other topics. The main discussion paper and four of the supplementary papers appear below...

Improving Social Security in Canada : A Discussion Paper
October 1994
(212K, 61 pages)
Improving Social Security in Canada is the main document of the 1994 Social Security Review.
It deals with the following issues : the need for reform, working: jobs in a new economy, learning: making lifelong learning a way of life
, and security: building opportunity for people in need . The section entitled "Security: Building opportunity for people in need" focuses on the federal government's role in Canadian social security programs in 1994-95 and proposed reform options. (Click on the title of the report, then scroll down the page to the table of contents to find the Security section)
Here's what you'll find in the security section:
Introduction - What the federal government does now - The Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) - The Child Tax Benefit - The need for CAP reform - The goals for reform - Approaches to reform - Possible first steps - Longer-term approaches to reform

Improving Social Security in Canada
Reforming the Canada Assistance Plan: A Supplementary Paper
1994
(121K, 46 pages)

Improving Social Security in Canada
Guaranteed Annual Income: A Supplementary Paper
1994
(117K, 37 pages)
PDF version - 150K, 53 pages (much cleaner than HTML version...)

*For more GAI information, see the Canadian Social Research Links Guaranteed Annual Income page

Improving Social Security in Canada
Income Security for Children: A Supplementary Paper

1994
(111K, 25 pages)
This paper is an important resource for the study of the National Child Benefit and the federal child support initiative. It offers a 1993-94 snapshot of child poverty in Canada and the federal and provincial programs to assist families with children. It also offers a detailed economist's-eye-view of three different approaches to reform of the benefits available under those programs : (1) enhancing and re-targetting child tax benefits; (2) an integrated federal-provincial benefit; and (3) an enhanced Working Income Supplement. Extensive analysis of the impact of many options on families in different income brackets, and of the winners and losers under each of those options...

Improving Social Security in Canada
Persons With Disabilities: A Supplementary Paper
1994
(178K, 87 pages)
NOTE: Unlike the preceding SSR links which are pointing to HTML pages, this one points to a .TXT file (smaller file size)

Related Link :

Establishing an Effective Social Policy Agenda with Constrained Resources
by Peter Hicks (1995)
- An excellent article written by a senior HRDC official at the time. It presents some interesting historical information about the evolution of Canadian social programs from the sixties to the early nineties.
- Social historians will be particularly interested in the author's analysis of the 1994 SSR discussion paper...

Social Assistance in Canada, 1994
* Also available from the Government of Canada Web Archive:
http://goo.gl/au93G

This is an unpublished manuscript that I wrote when I was in the Social Policy Branch of Human Resources Development Canada early in 1994 in the context of a study of social assistance in the 24 member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). It's a detailed account of Canadian social assistance policies in place before CAP was replaced by the CHST. The printed version of the full questionnaire is over 40 pages.


From the
National Council of Welfare (NCW):

Over the years, the Council has produced many reports on poverty and welfare, but there are three that stand out in my mind as milestone reports on the history of welfare in Canada, at least since the 1980s.

1. 1987
Welfare in Canada: The Tangled Safety Net
(PDF - 2.7MB, 131 pages)
November 1987
Tangled Safety Net examines the following issues in Canadian social assistance network of programs:
* Complex rules * Needs-testing * Rates of assistance * Enforcement * Appeals * Recommendations
This report is the first comprehensive national analysis of social assistance programs operated by the provincial, territorial and municipal governments. These programs function as the safety net for Canadians and are better known by their everyday name ‘welfare’.

Version française :
Le bien-être social au Canada : Un filet de sécurité troué (PDF - 3Mo., 138 pages)
Novembre 1987
[ NOTA : Si vous trouvez un lien vers ce fichier en français, veuillez communiquer avec moi pour le partager.
Merci! gilseg@rogers.com ]

____________

2. 1992
Welfare Reform
(PDF - 2.8MB, 61 pages)
Summer 1992
This report is an update of the 1987 Tangled Safety Net, but it presents information by jurisdiction rather than by issue - covers all provinces and territories.

Version française:
Réforme du bien-être social (PDF - 3,5Mo., 63 pages)

____________

3. 1997
Another Look at Welfare Reform
(PDF - 6.75MB, 134 pages)
Autumn 1997
- an in-depth analysis of changes in Canadian welfare programs in the 1990s. The report focuses on the provincial and territorial reforms that preceded the repeal of the Canada Assistance Plan and those that followed the implementation of the Canada Health and Social Transfer in April 1996.
[Proactive disclosure : I did the research for, and wrote the provincial-territorial section of, this report while I was on a one-year secondment to the Council. Gilles ]

Version française:
Un autre regard sur la réforme du bien-être social (PDF - 8Mo., 148 pages)

---

Companion document to
Another Look:

Overview of Provincial (and Territorial)
Welfare Reforms in the 1990s

October 1998
Fifteen pages of research notes used in the production of Another Look at Welfare Reform.
HINT: There's a WEALTH of information on provincial-territorial welfare reforms in these pages that didn't make it to the final report!

-------------------------------------------------

Source:
National Council of Welfare
Established in 1969, the Council is an advisory group to the Minister of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (originally the Minister of Health and Welfare Canada). The mandate of the Council is to advise the Minister regarding any matter relating to social development that the Minister may refer to the Council for its consideration or that the Council considers appropriate.

October 6 (2012)
The National Council of Welfare closed its doors and shut down its website at the end of September 2012.
For more information, see http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/ncw.htm

 

NOTE : In addition to the above snapshots of welfare in Canada from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s, the National Council of Welfare website also includes a series of annual reports on estimated annual welfare incomes of four typical household types in Canada from 1986 to 2010. The Welfare Incomes reports also contain detailed information on adequacy of welfare incomes and on the treatment of assets and income in each provincial and territorial social assistance program, going back to 1986.
To access NCW reports from the Government of Canada Web Archive and Publications Canada, go to http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/ncw.htm

Also from the National Council of Welfare:

Number of People on Welfare, March 1995 to March 2005 (PDF file - 133K, 1 page)

United Nations

List of issues to be taken up in connection with the consideration of the third periodic report of Canada : United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights - Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
June 10, 1998

Recommended reading!
TIP : Skim the above list of issues to get a sense of the questions/issues raised by the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, then select a jurisdiction from the list below to access the governments' responses to those issues.
I guarantee you'll find many nuggets buried in these texts!

Canadian Government Responses: 
(November 1998) 

Federal Government Response
British Columbia Government Response
Alberta Government Response
Saskatchewan Government Response
Manitoba Government Response
Ontario Government Response
Québec Government Response
New Brunswick Government Response
Nova Scotia Government Response
Newfoundland Government Response
Northwest Territories Government Response
Yukon Government Response

No response available from PEI 

*Réponse du Gouvernement du Québec
(voir la note sur la page de réponse du Québec pour obtenir le texte complet en français)

Source:
UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
- incl. links to : Introduction - Statement to the 3rd Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (Seattle) - General Comment 15: The right to water (articles 11 and 12) - General Comment 14: The right to the highest attainable standard of health (article 12) - Guidelines for Drafting General Comments - Sessions (State party reports, Concluding observations) - Notes on sessions - States Parties to the Covenant - Draft Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights - Plan of Action to Strengthen the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights - Press releases - Treaty Body Database.
[ Source: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights ]

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
[ Source: Office of the High Commissioner ot the United Nations ]

Canada Assistance Plan (CAP)
Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST)
Canada Social Transfer (CST)

Canada Social Transfer
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fedprov/cst-eng.asp
(...) The CST is calculated on an equal per capita cash basis to reflect the Government’s commitment to ensure that general-purpose transfers provide equal support for all Canadians. Prior to that, the CST was calculated on an equal per capita basis combining the value of both tax and cash transfers.

History of the Health and Social Transfers (Finance Canada)
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fedprov/his-eng.asp

Source:
Federal Transfers to Provinces and Territories
http://www.fin.gc.ca/access/fedprov-eng.asp

Department of Finance Canada:
http://www.fin.gc.ca/fin-eng.asp

---

The Canada Social Transfer: Retrospect and Prospect (Word 2007 file - 242K, 15 pages)
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net//CST_2011.docx
By James Gauthier
14 July 2011
The structure of major federal transfers for provincial/territorial social programs has undergone significant changes over the years, primarily in response to the desire among provincial/territorial governments for greater flexibility and federal concerns over rising costs. This paper provides an overview of how federal support for social programs is provided to provinces and territories today through the CST, and how this fiscal arrangement has evolved over time, including its associated accountability mechanisms. The paper concludes with a presentation of some likely key issues for renewal of the CST, along with a description of the process of FPT negotiations for major federal transfers, as well as an example of a more targeted federal transfer to provinces and territories in support of housing and homelessness.

Source:
Library of Parliament Research Publications
http://www.parl.gc.ca/About/Library/VirtualLibrary/ResearchPublications-E.asp

---

Annual Report of the Canada Assistance Plan for the Year Ending March 31, 1968:
http://www.canadiansocialresearch.net/cap6768.htm
This 9-page report offers historical perspectives on welfare programs going back to the Old Age Pensions Act of 1927 along with a breakdown of components under CAP.
Recommended reading!

---

The Evolution of the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP)
1985
By John E. Osborne
This is a copy of the 21-page Appendix to the 1985 Nielsen Task Force report on the Canada Assistance Plan. It's an  insider's view of the first 20 years of CAP and its historical precedents. It was written by an official of the federal Department of Health and Welfare (the "home" of CAP) at the time, it includes a gold mine of historical information on Canadian social programs of last resort in the twentieth century.


"No sooner had CAP been launched than the Minister of Finance proposed, in September 1966, that it be terminated. In a statement to the Tax Structure Committee, he offered to terminate it as of March 31, 1970, and to replace it with a combination of tax abatement, equalization payments and adjustment grants unrelated to program costs." 
From The Evolution of the Canada Assistance Plan By John E. Osborne, in the Nielsen Task Force Report on CAP (1985)

The Canada Assistance Plan: A Twenty Year Assessment, l966-l986 (~23 printed pages with graphs and tables)
Allan Moscovitch
Carleton University
January 1988
This excellent critical analysis of CAP's first twenty years provides detailed information about programs that preceded CAP and about the inner workings of the administration of CAP.

Provincial and Municipal Social Assistance Programs (8 printed pages)
March 1996
The source of this file is the Inventory of Income Security Programs in Canada (Health & Welfare Canada, multiple editions from 1984 to 1993). This is a version of the Overview/Introduction to the chapter on social assistance (or welfare) that's been updated to 1996, just before the Canada Assistance Plan was replaced by the Canada Health and Social Transfer.There's a snapshot of how welfare operated in 1996, and you'll find that some of the rules haven't changed that much since then. There's also some interesting information on this page about the Federal-Provincial Agreements to Enhance the Employability of Social Assistance Recipients (mid-to-late 1980s), known in federal-provincial government circles as "the Four-Corner Agreements."


1996 OECD international social assistance study:

- detailed comparison of how social assistance programs operated
in 24 OECD countries, including Canada and the United States (see Volume II)

Social Assistance in OECD Countries
Volume I : Synthesis Report
(PDF - 2.6MB, 207 pages)
A study carried out on behalf of the Department of Social Security and the OECD by the Social Policy Research Unit
1996

---

Social Assistance in OECD Countries
Volume II : Country Reports
(PDF - 4.8MB, 499 pages)

A study carried out on behalf of the Department of Social Security and the OECD by the Social Policy Research Unit
By Tony Eardley, Jonathan Bradshaw, John Ditch, Ian Gough and Peter Whiteford
1996

Participating countries:
* Australia * Greece * Norway * Austria * Iceland * Portugal * Belgium * Ireland * Spain * Canada * Italy * Sweden * Denmark * Japan * Switzerland * Finland * Luxembourg * Turkey * France * Netherlands * United States * Germany * New Zealand * United Kingdom

Source:
United Kingdom
Department for Work and Pensions (DWP)



Below is a link to the submission of the Canadian federal government in the context of the above-mentioned OECD study.

Social Assistance in Canada, 1994
* Also available from the Government of Canada Web Archive:
http://goo.gl/au93G
Over 40 pages of information on Canadian social assistance programs as they operated in 1994. Much of the information in this document is still as relevant today as it was back then - eligibility, benefits, administrative rules, and more. Includes information about cost-sharing of welfare costs under the Canada Assistance Plan. Question-and-answer format for quick reference. This work was part of a larger study of social assistance in 24 countries released by the OECD early in 1996. I was the author of this report, with a lot of input from a number of colleagues in the Department at the time. If you want a snapshot of what welfare was like in Canada before the Canada Health and Social Transfer in 1996, try this one...

NOTE: Social Assistance in Canada, 1994 is the final submission of the Canadian federal government in the context of the 1996 OECD study appearing immediately below. This report is a critical and comparative overview of how social assistance or welfare operated in the mid-1990s in 24 countries (including Canada, with a special focus on Ontario). The chapter on Canada presents a factual snapshot of how welfare was working in Canada just before the 50-50 federal cost-sharing under the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) was replaced by a block fund, the Canada Health and Social Transfer, in April of 1996.

The OECD study consisted of a two-stream approach: for each country involved in the study, an "expert informant" (academic) and a "national government official" received a questionnaire on social assistance programs. The questionnaires were different from one another - federal government officials were asked to provide factual responses to over 70 questions, while the academics' questionnaire focused more on an in-depth critique of those same programs. Social Work Professor Patricia Evans was the Canadian expert informant, and I completed the submission on behalf of the Canadian government, with input from a number of government colleagues.

Recommended reading!
This is THE most comprehensive historical (mid-1990s) analysis you'll find of welfare in Canada, the United States and 22 other industrialized countries.
Volume I is a synthesis of all country reports - I'd suggest skipping past that one and going directly to Volume II, where you'll find 40 pages of information about Canada and 20 pages about the U.S.

Note that the top link in this yellow box is to the submission of the Canadian federal government in the context of the study.
The Canada chapter of Volume II is based partly on the Canadian govt. submission and partly on the submission of Professor Evans; for the most complete picture of welfare in Canada in the mid-1990s, I'd recommend checking both SA in Canada and the Canada country report in the OECD study.

Government transfer payments to persons
On this one table, you'll find the latest five years' worth of information on national expenditures (provincial stats available for a small fee) in the area of transfers to persons, which includes (among other programs):
*
Family and youth allowances * Child tax benefit or credit * Pensions - First and Second World Wars * War veterans' allowances * Grants to aboriginal persons and organizations * Goods and services tax credit * Employment insurance benefits * Old Age Security Fund payments * Provincial Social assistance, income maintenance * Social assistance, other [bolding added] * Workers compensation benefits * Canada and Quebec Pension Plans.
NOTE: In case you're interested in province-level stats, click the "384-0009" link under 'Source' at the bottom of the table. There you can obtain more specialized CANSIM tables, including provincial tables, for a few dollars each. The "Find information related to this table" link (which is also at the bottom of the StatCan table) contains methodological notes and other related StatCan products, many of which are free of charge.
Source:
Statistics Canada



Historian Alert!!

Dorothea Crittenden: Canada's first woman deputy minister
reformed welfare and social assistance

December 24, 2008
Obituary
By Gay Abbate
"(...) Dorothea Crittenden was a trailblazer who devoted her life to helping build Ontario's welfare system. She was also a key player in the creation of the Canada Assistance Plan, a federal-provincial cost-sharing plan that guarantees all Canadians equal access to social assistance."

As a rule, I don't include links to obituaries on my site or in my newsletter. In this case, however, I've made an exception based on the valuable historical insights that I've found in the obituary, and moreso in the paper below by John Stapleton, and that I wanted to share with Canadian social historians --- more pieces of the puzzle, as it were...
[...and no, I won't link to your Aunt Bertha's obituary. Don't even ask.]

The above obituary by Gay Abbate appeared in The Globe and Mail on December 23, and it's based on information provided by Dr. Crittenden in the course of interviews with John Stapleton in 1991.
The content of those interviews appears in the paper below, which provides valuable historical information about Canadian social policy from the Depression to the mid-1970's when she was Ontario's Deputy Minister of Community and Social Services. Of particular interest to Canadian social historians, I'm sure, will be sections like * What Ontario gave up for CAP * Project 500 in the 1970s * the cap on CAP (I should note that the cap on CAP was in the early 1990s and not the 1980s, as noted in the above obituary. John's paper has the correct info on that.)

Coming of Age in a Man’s World:
The Life, Times and Wisdom of Dorothea Crittenden,
Canada’s First Female Deputy Minister
(PDF - 355K, 22 pages)
January 2007
Source:
Open Policy (John Stapleton's website)


From the Social Research and Demonstration Corporation:

Learning What Works — Volume 5, Number 1 (PDF file - 1.7MB, 15 pages)
Spring 2005
Newsletter
Table of Contents:
- Asset-Building Strategies for the Poor: Is Policy Ahead of Research?
- Whither Welfare? (Excellent overview of recent welfare reforms in Canada and the U.S.!)
- One-on-One Help for Addressing the Employment Needs of Long-Term Unemployed IA Clients
- Why Experience-Rate the EI Program?
- School Readiness: Evidence From the Manitoba 2004 EDI Parent Survey
- Bulletin Board

Canada's Unique Social History
This is a comprehensive online introduction to social welfare and social work that anyone interested in the history of social programs in Canada should bookmark. The site comprises hundreds of pages of text, audio-visual material and links to more information. Prepare to spend hours - I did.
This is a must-visit site with something for everyone with an interest in Canadian social programs.
This site is the creation of Steven Hick, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Social Work of Carleton University in Ottawa.
The project was funded by Heritage Canada.
Here are just two of the eight modules:
- Rise of Income Security (module 3) offers 38 topics providing information about social programs from the 1800s to the post-CHST world
- Rise of Capitalism and Social Welfare (module 2) offers 17 topics from the origins of social welfare in the Middle Ages to the 1930s Depression in Canada

Also from Steve Hick :

Social Work Glossary
(Click on Glossary link in the left column - 600+ terms)

The Great Depression: A Canadian perspective
- An excellent site for information about the 1930s in Canada.
- Includes good multimedia (slide show, RealAudio version, etc.)

Windows of opportunity: social reform under Lester B. Pearson(PDF file - 568K, 12 pages)
by Jim Coutts
[historical information on the creation of several of Canada's key social programs in the early to mid-sixties]

"...in only five years of two minority governments Pearson enacted the Canada-Quebec Pension Plan, The Canada Assistance Plan, the Guaranteed Income Supplement and Medicare, all keystones of the modern social security system."
Source:
Policy Options: November 2003 Issue
(Theme: Corporate Governance)
[ Institute for Research on Public Policy ]

Poor Laws (England, 17th Century)
"The history of the English poor laws is often divided into the Old Poor Law and the New Poor Law — the watershed between them being the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834. Not everything changed in 1834, however. One important and complex piece of poor law legislation which originated in 1662, and which did not finally disappear until 1948, was the Settlement Act."
Source:
The Workhouse

Ontario

Ministry of Community and Social Services:
Supporting Ontario's communities since 1930
(retrieved from the Internet Archive)
The year 2005 is the 75th anniversary of the Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services.
Click on the link above and then, on the next page, scroll down to "Stories from our Past" for links to six short historical bits about welfare and social services in Ontario in the last century and even before.
Origins of the welfare department (1930) - breaking 650 lbs. of rocks to qualify for welfare in 1915 - houses of refuge - the Mothers' Allowance Act (1920) - the first foray into the field of day care in the mid-40s - the Soldier's Aid Commission (est. 1915).

Canadian Welfare Reforms in the Nineties

Welfare to Work Study
King's College (University of Western Ontario)
Caroline A. Gorlick, Ph.D/Associate Professor, King's College, is the principal investigator of this research project and Guy Brethour is the research associate/coordinator.
"The National Welfare to Work Study funded by Social Development Partnerships (Human Resources Development Canada) has 3 main objectives:
- to produce an inventory of the different types of welfare to work programs emerging across the country
- to analyze the dynamic relationship between program design, community resources and individual/family capacities
- to assess the impact of the linkage between program design, community resources and individual/family capacities on program success.
The first objective has been completed with the collection of comprehensive information on all provinces/territories' welfare to work programs. Both the National Inventory on Welfare to Work in Canada and an accompanying discussion paper entitled National Welfare to Work Programs: from new mandates to exiting bureaucracies to individual and program accountability was published and disseminated by the Canadian Council on Social Development in the fall of 1998. The other objectives were addressed in Phase 2 of the study which included data collection in six Canadian communities. All the communities had experiences with welfare to work program implementation. Phase 2 also involved updating the original National Inventory on Welfare to Work in Canada. The final report will be disseminated in the winter of 2002."

Welfare to Work Phase 2 Update - reports for every province and territory are now available on the site. They contain detailed information about welfare-to-work programs and services --- eligibility, supports, funding, assessment and review, planned program changes and much more - all revised to reflect what was happening at the end of 2001 across Canada.

.........................................................................................

Welfare-toWork: The Next Generation
A National Forum

(followup to the Welfare to Work Study)
November 16 – 18, 2003
UPDATE - February 2, 2004
Profiles, Papers and Presentations (abstracts / Powerpoint presentations / complete papers)
- links to 40+ papers and presentations from the Welfare to Work Forum are now available for download - includes keynote speeches, transcripts of sessions, powerpoint presentations and more.
Source:
Community Sector Council of Newfoundland and Labrador

The Welfare Enigma: Explaining the Dramatic
Decline in Canadians’ Use of Social Assistance, 1993–2005
(PDF - 548K, 32 pages)
Commentary
June 2008
"(...) Keeping people off welfare in the first instance, rather than attempting to get them off once on, is likely the most effective means of affecting caseloads and reducing longer-run welfare dependency."
Source:
C.D. Howe Institute
The C.D. Howe Institute is Canada’s leading independent, nonpartisan, nonprofit economic policy research institution. Its individual and corporate members are drawn from business, universities and the professions.

Two Tier Income Assistance (welfare) - this link takes you to a section of the Welfare Reforms in Canada Links page of this site.
Before the mid-1960s, two-tier welfare was the norm in Canada --- the provincial government was responsible for so-called "unemployable" people, and municipalities were responsible for "employable" people in financial need. Now, in 2011, only Ontario has such a system, and the municipal ($) contribution to welfare is being phased out (by 2018).

"The cost of Ontario Works financial and employment assistance is currently shared by the province (81.2 per cent) and municipalities (18.8 per cent). As part of a plan to upload these costs incrementally, the province will cover 100 per cent of these costs by 2018. Administration costs are shared on a 50-50 basis between the province and municipalities. The province covers 100 per cent of the costs of ODSP."
Source:
Ontario Social Assistance Review Commission (2011)

Québec

The Insertion Model or the Workfare Model?
The Transformation of Social Assistance within Quebec and Canada
September 2002
Sylvie Morel, Université Laval
"This research project involves a comparative analysis of changes in social assistance policies in Canada, particularly in Quebec"
Complete Report (PDF - 2.4MB, 190 pages)
"...we conclude, based on the cases of Quebec and Ontario, that Canada is currently evolving towards workfare, but encompasses several variants."
Source:

[Status of Women Canada]

From the Fraser institute:

Welfare Reform in Ontario: A Report Card (PDF)
December 2004
This study will examine welfare policies in Ontario since 1985, evaluating the welfare reforms initiated under the newly elected provincial government in June 1995. These will be compared with reforms of welfare policies in the United States, which have proven abundantly successful in reducing dependency, increasing employment and earnings of welfare leavers, and lowering poverty rates, as well as with reforms of welfare policies undertaken by other Canadian jurisdictions.

Welfare Reform in British Columbia: A Report Card (PDF)
October 2002
This study examines and evaluates the commitments made by the BC government to welfare reform. It draws comparisons with recent welfare reforms in the United States because the US reforms have proven overwhelmingly successful at reducing welfare caseloads, increasing the employment and earnings of previous welfare recipients, and reducing poverty rates.

Welfare in Saskatchewan: A Critical Evaluation (PDF)
November 2002
This study is divided into three sections:
- welfare and welfare reform in Canada
- overview of welfare provision in Saskatchewan
- information on the welfare reform experiments in the United States post-1996.

Surveying US and Canadian Welfare Reform (PDF - 842K, 68 pages)
[ Executive summary - HTML ]
August 2001
The provision of welfare and related services is a sensitive undertaking requiring a delicate balance between the compassionate delivery of services to those in need and the maintenance of fiscal prudence...


A State of the Art Review of Income Security Reform in Canada

Jane Pulkingham & Gordon Ternowetsky
1998
International Development Research Centre*
(Click on the title of the report above to go directly to the table of contents.
The entire report is online)

- Includes an extensive, detailed overview of income security reforms in Canada in the 1990s, specifically around the Canada Health and Social Transfer, a review and typology of current research in virtually every area of federal and provincial/territorial social programs and a section on the impact of changes since the CHST and related social reforms. 
- Recommended reading for anyone looking for information about the critical forces that have shaped income security programs in Canada and that continue to do so as we approach the new millennium. 
- Topics covered include welfare reforms, the National Child Benefit and child poverty, unemployment/employment insurance reforms, pension reform and the retirement income system, labour market policies, the Social Union, income security reforms in the broader context of social security reform, etc. 

-------------------
*The International Development Research Centre website also includes many links to information on similar reforms in developing countries 
"The International Development Research Centre is a public corporation created by the Canadian government to help communities in the developing world find solutions to social, economic, and environmental problems through research." 
-------------------

Complete reports online include the following:

Social Policy Challenges in a Global Society
by Keith Banting (1995
- An extensive and excellent treatise on globalization, trade agreements, social need and reforms. 

 Establishing an Effective Social Policy Agenda with Constrained Resources
by Peter Hicks (1995
- An excellent article written by a senior HRDC official at the time. It presents some interesting historical information about the evolution of Canadian social programs from the sixties to the early nineties. 
- Social historians will be particularly interested in the author's analysis of the 1994 SSR discussion paper... 

--------------

From
Queen's University School of Policy Studies
:


Social Policy in Canada - Looking Back, Looking Ahead (PDF - 233K, 40 pages)
Peter Hicks
November 2008
Abstract: This paper discusses recent policy trends, the changing role of the various actors in the system, international comparisons and a range of other social policy topics. The paper does this by examining the author’s thoughts on trends and future directions as they were set out in a paper written in 1994. It then fast forwards to 2008 and examines what actually happened in the intervening years, pointing out areas where earlier forecasts were reasonably accurate and, where they were not, the reasons for this. The immediate purpose of the paper is to examine the reasons why social policy analysts need to look into the future, and to explore ways of managing the inevitably large risks associated with such future-looking exercises. The underlying purpose, however, is simply to introduce a range of important Canadian social policy topic to students and others who are interested in social policy, but without much previous background in the area.

Recommended reading!
- includes a senior federal government insider's view of the tumultuous period of the mid-1990s, notably the Social Security Review of 1994. As an insider myself during that decade (if only on the social program information side of the Department where author Peter Hicks was an Assistant Deputy Minister), I found this paper quite interesting and enlightening, notably in its retrospective look at social policy in Canada in the mid-1990s and thirteen years later, in 2008.

Source:
[ Queen's University School of Policy Studies

Also by the same author:

 Establishing an Effective Social Policy Agenda with Constrained Resources
by Peter Hicks (1995

Social Policy Reform in Canada Under Regional Economic Integration by Albert Berry
- This article covers issues such as the harmonization and convergence of social programs, rationalization, privatization, cost-saving, competitiveness and social policy reform.


Welfare Leavers

Social Assistance Use: Trends in incidence, entry and exit rates
August 2004
by R. Sceviour and R. Finnie
"This paper explores the dynamics of Social Assistance use over this period [1995-2000] to calculate annual incidence and entry and exit rates at both the national and provincial level, broken down by family type. These breakdowns, available for the first time ever, are revealing as policy varied by province and family type and not all provinces shared equally in the recession or the expansion that followed it. The paper does not attempt to apportion the movements in SA participation rates between those related to the economy and changes in the administration of welfare. The focus is on the empirical record of SA entry, exit, and annual participation rates.

Followup article:

November 17, 2004
Social Assistance by Province, 1993-2003
Feature Article in the November 2004 issue of The Canadian Economic Observer
"Social assistance rates fell in every province between 1993 and 2003, but nowhere was the decline more dramatic than in Alberta and Ontario, according to a new report."
Complete article (PDF file - 67K, 7 pages)
"A recent article [see above] looked at the drop in people receiving social assistance in the 1990s, with particular emphasis on entry and exit rates by family type. This paper extends the results by province to 2003. One of the trade-offs of more timely data is the loss of detail on whether the changes originate through entry or exit and the type of family affected. The gain, however, is a comparison of which provinces have experienced the largest changes in social assistance among their population, and which had the highest and lowest rates of welfare use in 2003."

Source:
Feature Articles [Dozens of links to past feature articles!]
Canadian Economic Observer
[ Statistics Canada ]

---

Life after welfare : 1994 to 1999
March 2003
"Family incomes rose for the majority of people who stopped receiving welfare benefits during the 1990s. However, for about one out of every three individuals, family income declined significantly, according to a first-ever national study of the economic outcome for people who left welfare rolls."
The link above takes you to a summary of the report.
Complete report:
Life After Welfare: The Economic Well Being
of Welfare Leavers in Canada during the 1990s
(PDF file - 332K, 32 pages)
Source:
The Daily
[Statistics Canada]

Related Links:

After Welfare - Contrasting Studies (British Columbia)
"Statistics Canada has released a study on people who leave welfare that contrasts with the story spun by BC's Minister of Human Resources, Murray Coell. "Life After Welfare: The Economic Well Being of Welfare Leavers in Canada during the 1990s" by Marc Frenette and Garnett Picot provides some fascinating contrasts with Coell's characterization of the 90s and
with what are passing as welfare exit surveys in his ministry."
Source : Strategic Thoughts

Reports on Welfare Leavers and Diversion in the U.S.
-over 100 links to Cross-State Summaries and National Reports as well as state and county reports.
Source: Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE)
[U.S. Department of Health and Human Services]

From
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada:

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2008
[Posted online July 2011]
[PDF version (608K, 141 pages) : http://www.wellington.ca/en/socialservices/resources/SocialAssistanceStatisticalReport2008.pdf
Produced by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Directors of Income Support
This report includes a description of, and statistics related to, the welfare system in each province and territory, information about federal-provincial-territorial jurisdictional and funding issues, a bit of historical info on the Canada Assistance Plan and the Canada Health and Social Transfer, etc.

"In recognition of the growing public demand for comprehensive information on provincial and territorial social assistance programs and caseloads, the Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2008 is the fifth annual joint publication by federal, provincial and territorial governments. The report provides a general overview of social assistance in Canada, as well as a description of income support-related/social assistance programs in each jurisdiction. This report does not include social assistance rates as this information is currently available to the public on most provincial and territorial government Web sites."
(Excerpt from Chapter 1 - Summary)

NOTE: Chapter Two of the report is a seven-page descriptive overview of social assistance in Canada in 2008, comprising a (very) brief history of federal social assistance since 1966 and general information about how welfare works in Canadian provinces and territories (including the treatment of federal child benefits under welfare programs, welfare eligibility conditions and administrative rules, etc.). Other chapters of the report provide, for each province and territory, information on eligibility (including asset and income exemption levels) and benefits (but no actual benefit levels), as well as an impressive number of statistical tables, graphs and charts providing numbers of cases and beneficiaries (time series statistics going back as far as the mid-1990s, depending on the jurisdiction), profile information (age/education/sex of household head, cases by reason for assistance) and even (for most jurisdictions) the percentage of households reporting income.

Source:
[ Human Resources and Skills Development Canada ]

< Begin social researcher's lament. >

It's great to see the 2008 edition of this report online*, but the numbers in this report *are* over three years old --- none of the welfare ripple effects of the economic disaster of 2008 and 2009 are evident in the March 2008 stats in this report. This really isn't timely enough to help in the policy formulation process, nor is it timely enough to ensure accountability with respect to spending by federal, provincial and territorial governments on Canada's social assistance programs.
---
* "Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2008" is online, but not on the HRSDC website. The above links point to a copy of the report that was archived by the Internet Archive. Thanks for nothing, HRSDC.

The Internet Archive also contains the earlier versions of this statistical report:

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2004 http://web.archive.org/web/20110807030546/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/publications/reports/sp-626-09-05e/page00.shtml

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2005
http://web.archive.org/web/20110807030546/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/cs/sp/sdc/socpol/publications/reports/sd10-3-2004e/page00.shtml

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2006
http://web.archive.org/web/20110807030546/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/publications_resources/social_policy/fpt/page00.shtml

Social Assistance Statistical Report: 2007
http://web.archive.org/web/20110807030546/http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/publications_resources/social_policy/sasr_2007/page00.shtml

 

Source:
Social Policy
[ Human Resources and Skills Development Canada ]

The federal role in Canadian
welfare (social assistance) programs

- this link takes you to a section of the Canada Assistance Plan Resources page, where you'll find:
* a link to The Constitution Act, which replaced the British North America Act in 1982
* the actual text of the sub-section (s.92(7) of the Constitution Act that declares provinces are responsible for "[t]he Establishment, Maintenance, and Management of Hospitals, Asylums, Charities, and Eleemosynary Institutions in and for the Province, other than Marine Hospitals."
* information about the spending power, which the federal government invokes when it encroaches into provincial constitutional territory


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